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      Household and school-level influences on smoking behavior among Korean adolescents: a multilevel analysis.

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          Abstract

          Trends in adolescent smoking rates in South Korea have not shown substantial progress due to a lack of effective anti-smoking interventions and policies in school settings.

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          Most cited references 56

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          Perceived discrimination and health: a meta-analytic review.

          Perceived discrimination has been studied with regard to its impact on several types of health effects. This meta-analysis provides a comprehensive account of the relationships between multiple forms of perceived discrimination and both mental and physical health outcomes. In addition, this meta-analysis examines potential mechanisms by which perceiving discrimination may affect health, including through psychological and physiological stress responses and health behaviors. Analysis of 134 samples suggests that when weighting each study's contribution by sample size, perceived discrimination has a significant negative effect on both mental and physical health. Perceived discrimination also produces significantly heightened stress responses and is related to participation in unhealthy and nonparticipation in healthy behaviors. These findings suggest potential pathways linking perceived discrimination to negative health outcomes. Copyright (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.
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            Discrimination and racial disparities in health: evidence and needed research.

            This paper provides a review and critique of empirical research on perceived discrimination and health. The patterns of racial disparities in health suggest that there are multiple ways by which racism can affect health. Perceived discrimination is one such pathway and the paper reviews the published research on discrimination and health that appeared in PubMed between 2005 and 2007. This recent research continues to document an inverse association between discrimination and health. This pattern is now evident in a wider range of contexts and for a broader array of outcomes. Advancing our understanding of the relationship between perceived discrimination and health will require more attention to situating discrimination within the context of other health-relevant aspects of racism, measuring it comprehensively and accurately, assessing its stressful dimensions, and identifying the mechanisms that link discrimination to health.
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              Socioeconomic status and health behaviors in adolescence: a review of the literature.

              The goal of this review was to determine the direction of associations between SES and health behaviors during the period of adolescence. We searched the PsychInfo and Pubmed databases for studies that measured the association between SES and cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, marijuana use, diet, and physical activity in adolescents between 10- and 21-years old. Associations between SES and health behaviors conformed to two patterns. First, low SES was associated with poorer diets, less physical activity, and greater cigarette smoking. Second, there was no clear pattern of associations between SES and alcohol consumption or marijuana use. Results from this review indicate that, although some associations between SES and health behaviors exist during adolescence, the associations are not as robust as those in adulthood. Efforts to curb poor diet, inactivity, and smoking behaviors should target low SES adolescents, whereas efforts to curb teen drinking and marijuana use may be useful across the SES spectrum.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                PLoS ONE
                PloS one
                Public Library of Science (PLoS)
                1932-6203
                1932-6203
                2014
                : 9
                : 6
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Public Health Joint Doctoral Program, San Diego State University & University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America.
                [2 ] JW LEE Center for Global Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
                [3 ] Department of Social and Behavioral Science, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America.
                Article
                PONE-D-12-24975
                10.1371/journal.pone.0098683
                4045764
                24896251

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