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      Glucose-responsive insulin release: Analysis of mechanisms, formulations, and evaluation criteria

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          Abstract

          Diabetes mellitus has become one of the biggest medical challenges affecting millions of people globally. Alternative treatments for diabetes are currently being intensively investigated to improve the treatment efficacy and life qualities for diabetic patients. Glucose-responsive insulin release (GRIR) systems have exhibited tremendous potential to improve the normal glycemic control and to reduce the incidence of hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia, which further reduces potential complications in diabetic patients. In a given GRIR drug formulation, accuracy, response time, and reversibility of the GRIR functions are three key features enabling potential seamless control of blood glucose level. Nevertheless, there is significant challenge preventing current GRIR formulations from achieving them. This review article analyzes the most updated literature and provides insights on the impact of GRIR mechanisms, and formulations on these key features, and the relevant in vitro and in vivo evaluation methods to test these functions.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          8607908
          21032
          J Control Release
          J Control Release
          Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society
          0168-3659
          1873-4995
          26 September 2017
          31 January 2017
          10 October 2017
          10 October 2018
          : 263
          : 231-239
          Affiliations
          [a ]Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202, United States
          [b ]Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049, PR China
          Author notes
          [* ]Corresponding author. zcao@ 123456wayne.edu (Z. Cao)
          Article
          PMC5630063 PMC5630063 5630063 nihpa908428
          10.1016/j.jconrel.2017.01.043
          5630063
          28159517
          Categories
          Article

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