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      Increasing coverage in mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis elimination in an urban setting: a study of Malindi Town, Kenya.

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          Abstract

          Implementation of Mass Drug Administration (MDA) in urban settings is an obstacle to Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) elimination. No urban-specific guidelines on MDA in urban areas exist. Malindi district urban area had received 4 MDA rounds by the time the current study was implemented. Programme data showed average treatment coverage of 28.4% (2011 MDA), far below recommended minimum of 65-80%.

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          Most cited references 15

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          The global programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis.

           E Ottesen (2000)
          Ten years ago, no one foresaw that in the year 2000 there would be a Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) that is already 2 years old, active in 18 of the 80 endemic countries, and operating under a wholly new paradigm in public health - a paradigm affirming that public/private sector partnerships are essential in sharing both responsibilities and responses to global health problems. What has driven the LF Elimination Programme to this point? Where it is now headed? What will be required to sustain its momentum? What will its impact be? These are the issues addressed below.
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            Prospects for elimination of bancroftian filariasis by mass drug treatment in Pondicherry, India: a simulation study.

            LYMFASIM, a microsimulation model for transmission and control of lymphatic filariasis, was used to simulate the effects of mass treatment, in order to estimate the number of treatment rounds necessary to achieve elimination. Simulations were performed for a community that represented Pondicherry, India, and that had an average precontrol microfilariae (MF) prevalence of 8.5%. When ivermectin was used, 8 yearly treatment rounds with 65% population coverage gave a 99% probability of elimination. The number of treatment rounds necessary to achieve elimination depended to a large extent on coverage, drug efficacy, and endemicity level. Changing the interval between treatment rounds mainly influenced the duration of control, not the number of treatment rounds necessary to achieve elimination. Results hardly changed with alternative assumptions regarding the type of immune mechanism. The potential impact of mass treatment with a combination of diethylcarbamazine and albendazole is shown under different assumptions regarding its efficacy. Human migration and drug resistance were not considered. Results cannot be directly generalized to areas with different vector or epidemiological characteristics. In conclusion, the prospects for elimination of bancroftian filariasis by mass treatment in Pondicherry seem good, provided that the level of population coverage is sufficiently high.
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              Coverage, compliance and some operational issues of mass drug administration during the programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis in Orissa, India.

               Ramesh B Babu,  S. Kar (2004)
              This paper reports the coverage, compliance and other operational issues of mass drug administration (MDA) of diethylcarbamazine and albendazole under a programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis (LF) in Orissa state of India. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used to collect data from 90 villages and nine urban areas of four districts of Orissa, India. In Orissa, 67% of people older than 2 years had received the drugs during MDA and 42% had consumed them. About 25% of people had not taken the tablets although they received them. Urban areas recorded lower rates than rural areas. The paper discusses some policy/health system-, community- and drug-related issues that influenced coverage and compliance of MDA. It is essential to improve compliance in future rounds of MDA to achieve targets of control and eventual elimination of LF in a reasonable time frame.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                PLoS ONE
                PloS one
                Public Library of Science (PLoS)
                1932-6203
                1932-6203
                2014
                : 9
                : 1
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Eastern and Southern Africa Centre of International Parasite Control (ESACIPAC) Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI), Nairobi, Kenya.
                [2 ] Division of Vector Borne and Neglected Tropical Diseases, Ministry of Health, Nairobi, Kenya.
                [3 ] Malindi District Hospital, Ministry of Health, Malindi, Kenya.
                Article
                PONE-D-13-26775
                10.1371/journal.pone.0083413
                3891599
                24454703

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