Blog
About

122
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: not found
      • Article: not found

      Femtosecond X-ray protein nanocrystallography

      Nature

      Springer Nature

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisher
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 28

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          The integration of macromolecular diffraction data.

          The objective of any modern data-processing program is to produce from a set of diffraction images a set of indices (hkls) with their associated intensities (and estimates of their uncertainties), together with an accurate estimate of the crystal unit-cell parameters. This procedure should not only be reliable, but should involve an absolute minimum of user intervention. The process can be conveniently divided into three stages. The first (autoindexing) determines the unit-cell parameters and the orientation of the crystal. The unit-cell parameters may indicate the likely Laue group of the crystal. The second step is to refine the initial estimate of the unit-cell parameters and also the crystal mosaicity using a procedure known as post-refinement. The third step is to integrate the images, which consists of predicting the positions of the Bragg reflections on each image and obtaining an estimate of the intensity of each reflection and its uncertainty. This is carried out while simultaneously refining various detector and crystal parameters. Basic features of the algorithms employed for each of these three separate steps are described, principally with reference to the program MOSFLM.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Femtosecond electronic response of atoms to ultra-intense X-rays.

            An era of exploring the interactions of high-intensity, hard X-rays with matter has begun with the start-up of a hard-X-ray free-electron laser, the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). Understanding how electrons in matter respond to ultra-intense X-ray radiation is essential for all applications. Here we reveal the nature of the electronic response in a free atom to unprecedented high-intensity, short-wavelength, high-fluence radiation (respectively 10(18) W cm(-2), 1.5-0.6 nm, approximately 10(5) X-ray photons per A(2)). At this fluence, the neon target inevitably changes during the course of a single femtosecond-duration X-ray pulse-by sequentially ejecting electrons-to produce fully-stripped neon through absorption of six photons. Rapid photoejection of inner-shell electrons produces 'hollow' atoms and an intensity-induced X-ray transparency. Such transparency, due to the presence of inner-shell vacancies, can be induced in all atomic, molecular and condensed matter systems at high intensity. Quantitative comparison with theory allows us to extract LCLS fluence and pulse duration. Our successful modelling of X-ray/atom interactions using a straightforward rate equation approach augurs favourably for extension to complex systems.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Model for the structure of bacteriorhodopsin based on high-resolution electron cryo-microscopy.

              The light-driven proton pump bacteriorhodopsin occurs naturally as two-dimensional crystals. A three-dimensional density map of the structure, at near-atomic resolution, has been obtained by studying the crystals using electron cryo-microscopy to obtain electron diffraction patterns and high-resolution micrographs. New methods were developed for analysing micrographs from tilted specimens, incorporating methods previously developed for untilted specimens that enable large areas to be analysed and corrected for distortions. Data from 72 images, from both tilted and untilted specimens, were analysed to produce the phases of 2700 independent Fourier components of the structure. The amplitudes of these components were accurately measured from 150 diffraction patterns. Together, these data represent about half of the full three-dimensional transform to 3.5 A. The map of the structure has a resolution of 3.5 A in a direction parallel to the membrane plane but lower than this in the perpendicular direction. It shows many features in the density that are resolved from the main density of the seven alpha-helices. We interpret these features as the bulky aromatic side-chains of phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan residues. There is also a very dense feature, which is the beta-ionone ring of the retinal chromophore. Using these bulky side-chains as guide points and taking account of bulges in the helices that indicate smaller side-chains such as leucine, a complete atomic model for bacteriorhodopsin between amino acid residues 8 and 225 has been built. There are 21 amino acid residues, contributed by all seven helices, surrounding the retinal and 26 residues, contributed by five helices, forming the proton pathway or channel. Ten of the amino acid residues in the middle of the proton channel are also part of the retinal binding site. The model also provides a useful basis for consideration of the mechanism of proton pumping and allows a consistent interpretation of a great deal of other experimental data. In particular, the structure suggests that pK changes in the Schiff base must act as the means by which light energy is converted into proton pumping pressure in the channel. Asp96 is on the pathway from the cytoplasm to the Schiff base and Asp85 is on the pathway from the Schiff base to the extracellular surface.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                10.1038/nature09750

                Comments

                Comment on this article