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      Sedentary Behaviour and Hair Cortisol Amongst Women Living in Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Neighbourhoods: A Cross-Sectional Study

      International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health

      MDPI

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          Hair cortisol as a biological marker of chronic stress: current status, future directions and unanswered questions.

          The detrimental effects of stress on human health are being increasingly recognized. There is a critical need for the establishment of a biomarker that accurately measures its intensity and course over time. Such a biomarker would allow monitoring of stress, increase understanding of its pathophysiology and may help identify appropriate and successful management strategies. Whereas saliva and urine cortisol capture real-time levels, hair cortisol analysis presents a complementary means of monitoring stress, capturing systemic cortisol exposure over longer periods of time. This novel approach for cortisol quantification is being increasingly used to identify the effects of stress in a variety of pathological situations, from chronic pain to acute myocardial infarctions. Because of its ability to provide a long-term, month-by-month measure of systemic cortisol exposure, hair cortisol analysis is becoming a useful tool, capable of answering clinical questions that could previously not be answered by other tests. In this paper we review the development, current status, limitations and outstanding questions regarding the use of hair cortisol as a biomarker of chronic stress. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Validity and reliability of measures of television viewing time and other non-occupational sedentary behaviour of adults: a review.

            Time spent in non-occupational sedentary behaviours (particularly television viewing time) is associated with excess adiposity and an increased risk of metabolic disorders among adults; however, there are no reviews of the validity and reliability of assessing these behaviours. This paper aims to document measures used to assess adults' time spent in leisure-time sedentary behaviours and to review the evidence on their reliability and validity. Medline, CINAHL and Psych INFO databases and reference lists from published papers were searched to identify studies in which leisure-time sedentary behaviours had been measured in adults. Sixty papers reporting measurement of at least one type of leisure-time sedentary behaviour were identified. Television viewing time was the most commonly measured sedentary behaviour. The main method of data collection was by questionnaire. Nine studies examined reliability and three examined validity for the questionnaire method of data collection. Test-retest reliabilities were predominantly moderate to high, but the validity studies reported large differences in correlations of self-completion questionnaire data with the various referent measures used. To strengthen future epidemiological and health behaviour studies, the development of reliable and valid self-report instruments that cover the full range of leisure-time sedentary behaviour is a priority.
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              Sedentary behaviour and the risk of depression: a meta-analysis.

              Sedentary behaviour is associated with risk of depression. We review and quantitatively summarise the evidence from observational studies in a meta-analysis.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                10.3390/ijerph15040586

                https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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