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      Emerald ash borer invasion of North America: history, biology, ecology, impacts, and management.

      1 ,
      Annual review of entomology
      Annual Reviews

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          Abstract

          Since its accidental introduction from Asia, emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), has killed millions of ash trees in North America. As it continues to spread, it could functionally extirpate ash with devastating economic and ecological impacts. Little was known about EAB when it was first discovered in North America in 2002, but substantial advances in understanding of EAB biology, ecology, and management have occurred since. Ash species indigenous to China are generally resistant to EAB and may eventually provide resistance genes for introgression into North American species. EAB is characterized by stratified dispersal resulting from natural and human-assisted spread, and substantial effort has been devoted to the development of survey methods. Early eradication efforts were abandoned largely because of the difficulty of detecting and delineating infestations. Current management is focused on biological control, insecticide protection of high-value trees, and integrated efforts to slow ash mortality.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Annu. Rev. Entomol.
          Annual review of entomology
          Annual Reviews
          1545-4487
          0066-4170
          2014
          : 59
          Affiliations
          [1 ] Department of Entomology, The Ohio State University, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, Wooster, Ohio 44691; email: herms.2@osu.edu.
          Article
          10.1146/annurev-ento-011613-162051
          24112110
          199526ca-e386-426d-94a7-3ba1cc840aaa
          History

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