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      Pulsatile Insulin Secretion: Detection, Regulation, and Role in Diabetes

      , , , , ,

      Diabetes

      American Diabetes Association

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          Abstract

          Insulin concentrations oscillate at a periodicity of 5-15 min per oscillation. These oscillations are due to coordinate insulin secretory bursts, from millions of islets. The generation of common secretory bursts requires strong within-islet and within-pancreas coordination to synchronize the secretory activity from the beta-cell population. The overall contribution of this pulsatile mechanism dominates and accounts for the majority of insulin release. This review discusses the methods involved in the detection and quantification of periodicities and individual secretory bursts. The mechanism by which overall insulin secretion is regulated through changes in the pulsatile component is discussed for nerves, metabolites, hormones, and drugs. The impaired pulsatile secretion of insulin in type 2 diabetes has resulted in much focus on the impact of the insulin delivery pattern on insulin action, and improved action from oscillatory insulin exposure is demonstrated on liver, muscle, and adipose tissues. Therefore, not only is the dominant regulation of insulin through changes in secretory burst mass and amplitude, but the changes may affect insulin action. Finally, the role of impaired pulsatile release in early type 2 diabetes suggests a predictive value of studies on insulin pulsatility in the development of this disease.

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          Most cited references 125

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              Abnormal patterns of insulin secretion in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

              To determine whether non-insulin-dependent diabetes is associated with specific alterations in the pattern of insulin secretion, we studied 16 patients with untreated diabetes and 14 matched controls. The rates of insulin secretion were calculated from measurements of peripheral C-peptide in blood samples taken at 15- to 20-minute intervals during a 24-hour period in which the subjects ate three mixed meals. Incremental responses of insulin secretion to meals were significantly lower in the diabetic patients (P less than 0.005), and the increases and decreases in insulin secretion after meals were more sluggish. These disruptions in secretory response were more marked after dinner than after breakfast, and a clear secretory response to dinner often could not be identified. Both the control and diabetic subjects secreted insulin in a series of discrete pulses. In the controls, a total of seven to eight pulses were identified in the period from 9 a.m. to 11 p.m., including the three post-meal periods (an average frequency of one pulse per 105 to 120 minutes), and two to four pulses were identified in the remaining 10 hours. The number of pulses in the patients and controls did not differ significantly. However, in the patients, the pulses after meals had a smaller amplitude (P less than 0.03) and were less frequently concomitant with a glucose pulse (54.7 +/- 4.9 vs. 82.2 +/- 5.0, P less than 0.001). Pulses also appeared less regularly in the patients. During glucose clamping to produce hyperglycemia (glucose level, 16.7 mmol per liter [300 mg per deciliter]), the diabetic subjects secreted, on the average, 70 percent less insulin than matched controls (P less than 0.001). These data suggest that profound alterations in the amount and temporal organization of stimulated insulin secretion may be important in the pathophysiology of beta-cell dysfunction in diabetes.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Diabetes
                Diabetes
                American Diabetes Association
                0012-1797
                1939-327X
                February 01 2002
                February 01 2002
                : 51
                : Supplement 1
                : S245-S254
                Article
                10.2337/diabetes.51.2007.S245
                © 2002

                Molecular medicine, Neurosciences

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