48
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Progress and problems in muscle glycogenoses

      review-article
      , 1 ,
      Acta Myologica
      Pacini Editore SpA
      glycogen storage diseases, GSD, polyglucosan disorders

      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          In this selective review, we consider a number of unsolved questions regarding the glycogen storage diseases (GSD). Thus, the pathogenesis of Pompe disease (GSD II) is not simply explained by excessive intralysosomal glycogen storage and may relate to a more general dysfunction of autophagy. It is not clear why debrancher deficiency (GSD III) causes fixed myopathy rather than exercise intolerance, unless this is due to the frequent accompanying neuropathy. The infantile neuromuscular presentation of branching enzyme deficiency (GSD IV) is underdiagnosed and is finally getting the attention it deserves. On the other hand, the late-onset variant of GSD IV (adult polyglucosan body disease APBD) is one of several polyglucosan disorders (including Lafora disease) due to different etiologies. We still do not understand the clinical heterogeneity of McArdle disease (GSD V) or the molecular basis of the rare fatal infantile form. Similarly, the multisystemic infantile presentation of phosphofructokinase deficiency (GSD VII) is a conundrum. We observed an interesting association between phosphoglycerate kinase deficiency (GSD IX) and juvenile Parkinsonism, which is probably causal rather than casual. Also unexplained is the frequent and apparently specific association of phosphoglycerate mutase deficiency (GSD X) and tubular aggregates. By paying more attention to problems than to progress, we aimed to look to the future rather than to the past.

          Related collections

          Most cited references83

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          AMP-activated protein kinase--development of the energy sensor concept.

          The LKB1-->AMPK cascade is switched on by metabolic stresses that either inhibit ATP production (e.g. hypoxia, hypoglycaemia) or that accelerate ATP consumption (e.g. muscle contraction). Any decline in cellular energy status is accompanied by a rise in the cellular AMP: ATP ratio, and this activates AMPK by a complex and sensitive mechanism involving antagonistic binding of the nucleotides to two sites on the regulatory gamma subunits of AMPK. Once activated by metabolic stress, AMPK activates catabolic pathways that generate ATP, while inhibiting cell growth and biosynthesis and other processes that consume ATP. While the AMPK system probably evolved in single-celled eukaryotes to maintain energy balance at the cellular level, in multicellular organisms its role has become adapted so that it is also involved in maintaining whole body energy balance. Thus, it is regulated by hormones and cytokines, especially the adipokines leptin and adiponectin, increasing whole body energy expenditure while regulating food intake. Some hormones may activate AMPK by an LKB1-independent mechanism involving Ca2+/calmodulin dependent protein kinase kinases. Low levels of activation of AMPK are likely to play a role in the current global rise in obesity and Type 2 diabetes, and AMPK is the target for the widely used antidiabetic drug metformin.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            A block of autophagy in lysosomal storage disorders.

            Most lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) are caused by deficiencies of lysosomal hydrolases. While LSDs were among the first inherited diseases for which the underlying biochemical defects were identified, the mechanisms from enzyme deficiency to cell death are poorly understood. Here we show that lysosomal storage impairs autophagic delivery of bulk cytosolic contents to lysosomes. By studying the mouse models of two LSDs associated with severe neurodegeneration, multiple sulfatase deficiency (MSD) and mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIA (MPSIIIA), we observed an accumulation of autophagosomes resulting from defective autophagosome-lysosome fusion. An impairment of the autophagic pathway was demonstrated by the inefficient degradation of exogenous aggregate-prone proteins (i.e. expanded huntingtin and mutated alpha-synuclein) in cells from LSD mice. This impairment resulted in massive accumulation of polyubiquitinated proteins and of dysfunctional mitochondria which are the putative mediators of cell death. These data identify LSDs as 'autophagy disorders' and suggest the presence of common mechanisms in the pathogenesis of these and other neurodegenerative diseases.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Glycogen storage disease type III diagnosis and management guidelines.

              Glycogen storage disease type III is a rare disease of variable clinical severity affecting primarily the liver, heart, and skeletal muscle. It is caused by deficient activity of glycogen debranching enzyme, which is a key enzyme in glycogen degradation. Glycogen storage disease type III manifests a wide clinical spectrum. Individuals with glycogen storage disease type III present with hepatomegaly, hypoglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and growth retardation. Those with type IIIa have symptoms related to liver disease and progressive muscle (cardiac and skeletal) involvement that varies in age of onset, rate of disease progression, and severity. Those with type IIIb primarily have symptoms related to liver disease. This guideline for the management of glycogen storage disease type III was developed as an educational resource for health care providers to facilitate prompt and accurate diagnosis and appropriate management of patients. An international group of experts in various aspects of glycogen storage disease type III met to review the evidence base from the scientific literature and provided their expert opinions. Consensus was developed in each area of diagnosis, treatment, and management. This management guideline specifically addresses evaluation and diagnosis across multiple organ systems (cardiovascular, gastrointestinal/nutrition, hepatic, musculoskeletal, and neuromuscular) involved in glycogen storage disease type III. Conditions to consider in a differential diagnosis stemming from presenting features and diagnostic algorithms are discussed. Aspects of diagnostic evaluation and nutritional and medical management, including care coordination, genetic counseling, hepatic transplantation, and prenatal diagnosis, are addressed. A guideline that will facilitate the accurate diagnosis and appropriate management of individuals with glycogen storage disease type III was developed. This guideline will help health care providers recognize patients with all forms of glycogen storage disease type III, expedite diagnosis, and minimize stress and negative sequelae from delayed diagnosis and inappropriate management. It will also help identify gaps in scientific knowledge that exist today and suggest future studies.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Acta Myol
                Pacini
                Acta Myologica
                Pacini Editore SpA
                1128-2460
                1128-2460
                October 2011
                : 30
                : 2
                : 96-102
                Affiliations
                Department of Neurology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, USA
                [1 ] Department of Pediatrics, HaEmek Medical Center, Rappaport School of Medicine, Afula, Israel
                Author notes
                Address for correspondence: Salvatore DiMauro, MD, 4-424B College of Physicians & Surgeons, 630 West 168 th Street, New York, NY 10032, USA. Tel. +212 305 1662. Fax +212 305 3986. E-mail: sd12@ 123456columbia.edu
                Article
                Pacini
                3235878
                22106711
                a78f93e9-e0bc-466a-af8a-a912a41d676c
                The journal and the individual contributions contained in it are protected by the copyright of Gaetano Conte Academy, Naples, Italy

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License, which permits for noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any digital medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not altered in any way. For details, please refer to http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/

                Categories
                Articles in Tribute of V. Askanas and K. Engel

                Plant science & Botany
                polyglucosan disorders,gsd,glycogen storage diseases
                Plant science & Botany
                polyglucosan disorders, gsd, glycogen storage diseases

                Comments

                Comment on this article