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      Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus disease in three communities.

      The New England journal of medicine

      Adolescent, Adult, African Continental Ancestry Group, Aged, Anti-Bacterial Agents, therapeutic use, Baltimore, epidemiology, Child, Child, Preschool, Community-Acquired Infections, microbiology, therapy, Drainage, Endemic Diseases, statistics & numerical data, European Continental Ancestry Group, Georgia, Humans, Incidence, Infant, Methicillin Resistance, Middle Aged, Minnesota, Population Surveillance, Risk Factors, Staphylococcal Infections, Staphylococcus aureus, drug effects, isolation & purification

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          Abstract

          Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection has emerged in patients who do not have the established risk factors. The national burden and clinical effect of this novel presentation of MRSA disease are unclear. We evaluated MRSA infections in patients identified from population-based surveillance in Baltimore and Atlanta and from hospital-laboratory-based sentinel surveillance of 12 hospitals in Minnesota. Information was obtained by interviewing patients and by reviewing their medical records. Infections were classified as community-associated [correction] MRSA disease if no established risk factors were identified. From 2001 through 2002, 1647 cases of community-associated [correction] MRSA infection were reported, representing between 8 and 20 percent of all MRSA isolates. The annual disease incidence varied according to site (25.7 cases per 100,000 population in Atlanta vs. 18.0 per 100,000 in Baltimore) and was significantly higher among persons less than two years old than among those who were two years of age or older (relative risk, 1.51; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.19 to 1.92) and among blacks than among whites in Atlanta (age-adjusted relative risk, 2.74; 95 percent confidence interval, 2.44 to 3.07). Six percent of cases were invasive, and 77 percent involved skin and soft tissue. The infecting strain of MRSA was often (73 percent) resistant to prescribed antimicrobial agents. Among patients with skin or soft-tissue infections, therapy to which the infecting strain was resistant did not appear to be associated with adverse patient-reported outcomes. Overall, 23 percent of patients were hospitalized for the MRSA infection. Community-associated MRSA infections are now a common and serious problem. These infections usually involve the skin, especially among children, and hospitalization is common. Copyright 2005 Massachusetts Medical Society.

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          Most cited references 29

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          Comparison of mortality associated with methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: a meta-analysis.

          A meta-analysis was performed to summarize the impact of methicillin-resistance on mortality in Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. A search of the MEDLINE database for studies published during the period of 1 January 1980 through 31 December 2000 and a bibliographic review identified English-language studies of S. aureus bacteremia. Studies were included if they contained the numbers of and mortality rates for patients with methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) bacteremia. Data were extracted on demographic characteristics of the patients, adjustment for severity and comorbid illness, source of bacteremia, and crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for in-hospital mortality. When the results were pooled with a random-effects model, a significant increase in mortality associated with MRSA bacteremia was evident (OR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.54-2.42; P<.001); significant heterogeneity was present. We explored the reasons for heterogeneity by means of subgroup analyses. MRSA bacteremia is associated with significantly higher mortality rate than is MSSA bacteremia.
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            The changing epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus?

             H Chambers (2001)
            Strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), which had been largely confined to hospitals and long-term care facilities, are emerging in the community. The changing epidemiology of MRSA bears striking similarity to the emergence of penicillinase-mediated resistance in S. aureus decades ago. Even though the origin (hospital or the community) of the emerging MRSA strains is not known, the prevalence of these strains in the community seems likely to increase substantially.
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              Survey of infections due to Staphylococcus species: frequency of occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates collected in the United States, Canada, Latin America, Europe, and the Western Pacific region for the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program, 1997-1999.

              Between January 1997 and December 1999, bloodstream isolates from 15,439 patients infected with Staphylococcus aureus and 6350 patients infected with coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species (CoNS) were referred by SENTRY-participating hospitals in the United States, Canada, Latin America, Europe, and the Western Pacific region. S. aureus was found to be the most prevalent cause of bloodstream infection, skin and soft-tissue infection, and pneumonia in almost all geographic areas. A notable increase in methicillin (oxacillin) resistance among community-onset and hospital-acquired S. aureus strains was observed in the US centers. The prevalence of methicillin (oxacillin)-resistant S. aureus varied greatly by region, site of infection, and whether the infection was nosocomial or community onset. Rates of methicillin resistance were extremely high among S. aureus isolates from centers in Hong Kong and Japan. Uniformly high levels of methicillin resistance were observed among CoNS isolates. Given the increasing multidrug resistance among staphylococci and the possible emergence of vancomycin-resistant strains, global strategies are needed to control emergence and spread of multiply resistant staphylococci.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                15814879
                10.1056/NEJMoa043252

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