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Isolation and characterization of endothelial progenitor cells from Rhesus monkeys

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Regenerative Medicine Research

Springer Nature

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      Isolation of putative progenitor endothelial cells for angiogenesis.

      Putative endothelial cell (EC) progenitors or angioblasts were isolated from human peripheral blood by magnetic bead selection on the basis of cell surface antigen expression. In vitro, these cells differentiated into ECs. In animal models of ischemia, heterologous, homologous, and autologous EC progenitors incorporated into sites of active angiogenesis. These findings suggest that EC progenitors may be useful for augmenting collateral vessel growth to ischemic tissues (therapeutic angiogenesis) and for delivering anti- or pro-angiogenic agents, respectively, to sites of pathologic or utilitarian angiogenesis.
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        Circulating endothelial progenitor cells, vascular function, and cardiovascular risk.

        Cardiovascular risk factors contribute to atherogenesis by inducing endothelial-cell injury and dysfunction. We hypothesized that endothelial progenitor cells derived from bone marrow have a role in ongoing endothelial repair and that impaired mobilization or depletion of these cells contributes to endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease progression. We measured the number of colony-forming units of endothelial progenitor cells in peripheral-blood samples from 45 men (mean [+/-SE] age, 50+/-2 years). The subjects had various degrees of cardiovascular risk but no history of cardiovascular disease. Endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent function was assessed by high-resolution ultrasonography of the brachial artery. We observed a strong correlation between the number of circulating endothelial progenitor cells and the subjects' combined Framingham risk factor score (r=-0.47, P=0.001). Measurement of flow-mediated brachial-artery reactivity also revealed a significant relation between endothelial function and the number of progenitor cells (r=0.59, P<0.001). Indeed, the levels of circulating endothelial progenitor cells were a better predictor of vascular reactivity than was the presence or absence of conventional risk factors. In addition, endothelial progenitor cells from subjects at high risk for cardiovascular events had higher rates of in vitro senescence than cells from subjects at low risk. In healthy men, levels of endothelial progenitor cells may be a surrogate biologic marker for vascular function and cumulative cardiovascular risk. These findings suggest that endothelial injury in the absence of sufficient circulating progenitor cells may affect the progression of cardiovascular disease. Copyright 2003 Massachusetts Medical Society
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          Expression of VEGFR-2 and AC133 by circulating human CD34(+) cells identifies a population of functional endothelial precursors.

          Emerging data suggest that a subset of circulating human CD34(+) cells have phenotypic features of endothelial cells. Whether these cells are sloughed mature endothelial cells or functional circulating endothelial precursors (CEPs) is not known. Using monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) to the extracellular domain of the human vascular endothelial receptor-2 (VEGFR-2), we have shown that 1.2 +/- 0.3% of CD34(+) cells isolated from fetal liver (FL), 2 +/- 0.5% from mobilized peripheral blood, and 1.4 +/- 0.5% from cord blood were VEGFR-2(+). In addition, most CD34(+)VEGFR-2(+) cells express hematopoietic stem cell marker AC133. Because mature endothelial cells do not express AC133, coexpression of VEGFR-2 and AC133 on CD34(+) cells phenotypically identifies a unique population of CEPs. CD34(+)VEGFR-2(+) cells express endothelial-specific markers, including VE-cadherin and E-selectin. Also, virtually all CD34(+)VEGFR-2(+) cells express the chemokine receptor CXCR4 and migrate in response to stromal-derived factor (SDF)-1 or VEGF. To quantitate the plating efficiency of CD34(+) cells that give rise to endothelial colonies, CD34(+) cells derived from FL were incubated with VEGF and fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2. Subsequent isolation and plating of nonadherent FL-derived VEGFR-2(+) cells with VEGF and FGF-2 resulted in differentiation of AC133(+ )VEGFR-2(+) cells into adherent AC133(-)VEGFR-2(+)Ac-LDL(+ )(acetylated low-density lipoprotein) colonies (plating efficiency of 3%). In an in vivo human model, we have found that the neo-intima formed on the surface of left ventricular assist devices is colonized with AC133(+)VEGFR-2(+) cells. These data suggest that circulating CD34(+) cells expressing VEGFR-2 and AC133 constitute a phenotypically and functionally distinct population of circulating endothelial cells that may play a role in neo-angiogenesis.
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            Regenerative Medicine Research
            Regen Med Res
            Springer Nature
            2050-490X
            2014
            2014
            : 2
            : 1
            : 5
            10.1186/2050-490X-2-5
            © 2014

            This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

            Medicine, Surgery

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