Mei-An Su 1 , Yun-Tzu Huang 1 , I-Tung Chen 2 , Der-Yen Lee 3 , Yun-Chieh Hsieh 1 , Chun-Yuan Li 1 , Tze Hann Ng 1 , Suh-Yuen Liang 4 , Shu-Yu Lin 5 , Shiao-Wei Huang 6 , Yi-An Chiang 1 , Hon-Tsen Yu 6 , Kay-Hooi Khoo 7 , Geen-Dong Chang 8 , Chu-Fang Lo 9 , Han-Ching Wang 1
In this study, we used a systems biology approach to investigate changes in the proteome and metabolome of shrimp hemocytes infected by the invertebrate virus WSSV (white spot syndrome virus) at the viral genome replication stage (12 hpi) and the late stage (24 hpi). At 12 hpi, but not at 24 hpi, there was significant up-regulation of the markers of several metabolic pathways associated with the vertebrate Warburg effect (or aerobic glycolysis), including glycolysis, the pentose phosphate pathway, nucleotide biosynthesis, glutaminolysis and amino acid biosynthesis. We show that the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway was of central importance in triggering this WSSV-induced Warburg effect. Although dsRNA silencing of the mTORC1 activator Rheb had only a relatively minor impact on WSSV replication, in vivo chemical inhibition of Akt, mTORC1 and mTORC2 suppressed the WSSV-induced Warburg effect and reduced both WSSV gene expression and viral genome replication. When the Warburg effect was suppressed by pretreatment with the mTOR inhibitor Torin 1, even the subsequent up-regulation of the TCA cycle was insufficient to satisfy the virus's requirements for energy and macromolecular precursors. The WSSV-induced Warburg effect therefore appears to be essential for successful viral replication.