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      Microbiota-derived short-chain fatty acids promote Th1 cell IL-10 production to maintain intestinal homeostasis

      Nature Communications

      Springer Nature America, Inc

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          Most cited references 23

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          Blimp-1 is required for the formation of immunoglobulin secreting plasma cells and pre-plasma memory B cells.

          Blimp-1 is a transcriptional repressor able to drive the terminal differentiation of B cells into Ig-secreting plasma cells. We have created mice with a B cell-specific deletion of prdm1, the gene encoding Blimp-1. B cell development and the number of B cells responding to antigen appear to be normal in these mice. However, in response to either TD or TI antigen, serum Ig, short-lived plasma cells, post-GC plasma cells, and plasma cells in a memory response are virtually absent, demonstrating that Blimp-1 is required for plasmacytic differentiation and Ig secretion. In the absence of Blimp-1, CD79b(+)B220(-) pre-plasma memory B cell development is also defective, providing evidence that this subset is an intermediate in plasma cell development. B cells lacking Blimp-1 cannot secrete Ig or induce muS mRNA when stimulated ex vivo. Furthermore, although prdm1-/- B cells fail to induce XBP-1, XBP-1 cannot rescue plasmacytic differentiation without Blimp-1.
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            Effect of butyrate enemas on the colonic mucosa in distal ulcerative colitis.

            Short-chain fatty acid irrigation has been shown to ameliorate inflammation in diversion colitis. In this study the effect of butyrate enemas was tested in 10 patients with distal ulcerative colitis who had been unresponsive to or intolerant of standard therapy for 8 weeks. They were treated for 2 weeks with sodium butyrate (100 mmol/L) and 2 weeks with placebo in random order (single-blind trial). Before and after treatment, clinical symptoms were noted and the degree of inflammation was graded endoscopically and histologically. Rectal proliferation was assessed by autoradiography. After butyrate irrigation, stool frequency (n/day) decreased from 4.7 +/- 0.5 to 2.1 +/- 0.4 (P less than 0.01) and discharge of blood ceased in 9 of 10 patients. The endoscopic score fell from 6.5 +/- 0.4 to 3.8 +/- 0.8 (P less than 0.01). The histological degree of inflammation decreased from 2.4 +/- 0.3 to 1.5 +/- 0.3 (P less than 0.02). Overall crypt proliferation was unchanged, but the upper crypt-labeling index fell from 0.086 +/- 0.019 to 0.032 +/- 0.003 (P less than 0.03). On placebo, all of these parameters were unchanged. These data support the view that butyrate deficiency may play a role in the pathogenesis of distal ulcerative colitis and that butyrate irrigation ameliorates this condition.
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              A dominant, coordinated T regulatory cell-IgA response to the intestinal microbiota.

              A T cell receptor transgenic mouse line reactive to a microbiota flagellin, CBir1, was used to define mechanisms of host microbiota homeostasis. Intestinal IgA, but not serum IgA, was found to block mucosal flagellin uptake and systemic T cell activation in mice. Depletion of CD4(+)CD25(+) Tregs decreased IgA(+) B cells, total IgA, and CBir1-specific IgA in gut within days. Repletion of T cell-deficient mice with either CD4(+)CD25(+) or CD4(+)foxp3(+) Tregs restored intestinal IgA to a much greater extent than their reciprocal CD4(+) subsets, indicating that Tregs are the major helper cells for IgA responses to microbiota antigens such as flagellin. We propose that the major role of this coordinated Treg-IgA response is to maintain commensalism with the microbiota.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                10.1038/s41467-018-05901-2

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0

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