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      Coronavirus Disease 2019 Case Surveillance — United States, January 22–May 30, 2020

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          The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic resulted in 5,817,385 reported cases and 362,705 deaths worldwide through May, 30, 2020, † including 1,761,503 aggregated reported cases and 103,700 deaths in the United States. § Previous analyses during February–early April 2020 indicated that age ≥65 years and underlying health conditions were associated with a higher risk for severe outcomes, which were less common among children aged <18 years ( 1 – 3 ). This report describes demographic characteristics, underlying health conditions, symptoms, and outcomes among 1,320,488 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases individually reported to CDC during January 22–May 30, 2020. Cumulative incidence, 403.6 cases per 100,000 persons, ¶ was similar among males (401.1) and females (406.0) and highest among persons aged ≥80 years (902.0). Among 599,636 (45%) cases with known information, 33% of persons were Hispanic or Latino of any race (Hispanic), 22% were non-Hispanic black (black), and 1.3% were non-Hispanic American Indian or Alaska Native (AI/AN). Among 287,320 (22%) cases with sufficient data on underlying health conditions, the most common were cardiovascular disease (32%), diabetes (30%), and chronic lung disease (18%). Overall, 184,673 (14%) patients were hospitalized, 29,837 (2%) were admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU), and 71,116 (5%) died. Hospitalizations were six times higher among patients with a reported underlying condition (45.4%) than those without reported underlying conditions (7.6%). Deaths were 12 times higher among patients with reported underlying conditions (19.5%) compared with those without reported underlying conditions (1.6%). The COVID-19 pandemic continues to be severe, particularly in certain population groups. These preliminary findings underscore the need to build on current efforts to collect and analyze case data, especially among those with underlying health conditions. These data are used to monitor trends in COVID-19 illness, identify and respond to localized incidence increase, and inform policies and practices designed to reduce transmission in the United States. State and territorial health departments report daily aggregate counts of COVID-19 cases and deaths to CDC; these were tabulated according to date of report to examine reporting trends during January 22–May 30. In addition to aggregate counts, individual COVID-19 case reports were submitted via a CDC COVID-19 case report form** and the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS). †† Jurisdictions voluntarily report confirmed and probable §§ cases from reports submitted by health care providers and laboratories. A laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 case was defined as a person with a positive test result for SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, from a respiratory specimen, using real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction testing. COVID-19 case data reported from 50 states, New York City, and the District of Columbia ¶¶ were analyzed to examine reported demographic characteristics, underlying health conditions, clinical signs and symptoms, and severe outcomes, including hospitalization, ICU admission, and death. Data were missing for age, sex, and race or ethnicity in <1%, 1%, and 55% of reports, respectively.*** Cases reported without sex or age data were excluded from this analysis as were cases meeting only the probable case definition, along with persons repatriated to the United States from Wuhan, China, or the Diamond Princess cruise ship. Cumulative incidence was estimated using 2018 population estimates. Because of the high prevalence of missing race and ethnicity data, estimates of incidence and proportions of underlying health conditions, symptoms, and severe outcomes by race and ethnicity were not described. Analyses are descriptive and statistical comparisons were not performed. CDC received notification of the first case of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 in the United States on January 22, 2020. ††† As of May 30, an aggregate 1,761,503 U.S. COVID-19 cases and 103,700 deaths had been reported (Figure). §§§ The 7-day moving average number ¶¶¶ of new daily cases peaked on April 12 (31,994) and deaths peaked on April 21 (2,856). As of May 30, the 7-day moving average numbers of new cases were 19,913 per day and deaths were 950 per day. FIGURE Daily number of COVID-19 cases * , † , § , ¶ (A) and COVID-19–associated deaths** (B) reported to CDC — United States, January 22–May 30, 2020 Abbreviation: COVID-19 = coronavirus disease 2019. * From April 14, 2020, aggregate case counts reported by CDC included deaths attributable to both confirmed and probable COVID-19 as classified by reporting jurisdictions, using the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists position statement Interim-ID-20-01 (https://cdn.ymaws.com/www.cste.org/resource/resmgr/2020ps/interim-20-id-01_covid-19.pdf). † The upper quartile of the lag between onset date and reporting to CDC was 15 days. § The daily number of deaths reported by jurisdictions on April 14 includes 4,141 deaths newly classified as probable. ¶ Overall <1% of cases reported in aggregate to CDC were classified as probable. ** Overall 3.1% of deaths reported in aggregate to CDC were classified as occurring in persons with probable cases. The figure is a combination histogram, epidemiologic curve, and line chart showing the daily number of COVID-19 cases (A) and COVID-19–associated deaths (B) reported to CDC, in the United States, during January 22–May 30, 2020. Among the 1,761,503 aggregate cases reported to CDC during January 22–May 30, individual case reports for 1,406,098 were submitted to CDC case surveillance. After exclusions, data for 1,320,488 (94%) cases were analyzed. Median age was 48 years (interquartile range = 33–63 years). Incidence was 403.6 cases per 100,000 population (Table 1) and was similar among females (406.0) and males (401.1).**** Incidence was higher among persons aged 40–49 years (541.6) and 50–59 years (550.5) than among those aged 60–69 years (478.4) and 70–79 years (464.2). Incidence was highest among persons aged ≥80 years (902.0) †††† and lowest among children aged ≤9 years (51.1). Among the 599,636 (45%) cases with information on both race and ethnicity, 36% of persons were non-Hispanic white, 33% were Hispanic, 22% were black, 4% were non-Hispanic Asian, 4% were non-Hispanic, other or multiple race, 1.3% were AI/AN, and <1% were non-Hispanic Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander. TABLE 1 Reported laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases and estimated cumulative incidence,* by sex † and age group — United States, January 22–May 30, 2020 Age group (yrs) Males Females Total No. (%) Cumulative incidence* No. (%) Cumulative incidence* No. (%) Cumulative incidence* 0–9 10,743 (1.7) 52.5 9,715 (1.4) 49.7 20,458 (1.5) 51.1 10–19 24,302 (3.8) 113.4 24,943 (3.7) 121.4 49,245 (3.7) 117.3 20–29 85,913 (13.3) 370.0 96,556 (14.3) 434.6 182,469 (13.8) 401.6 30–39 108,319 (16.8) 492.8 106,530 (15.8) 490.5 214,849 (16.3) 491.6 40–49 109,745 (17.0) 547.0 109,394 (16.2) 536.2 219,139 (16.6) 541.6 50–59 119,152 (18.4) 568.8 116,622 (17.3) 533.0 235,774 (17.9) 550.5 60–69 93,596 (14.5) 526.9 85,411 (12.7) 434.6 179,007 (13.6) 478.4 70–79 53,194 (8.2) 513.7 52,058 (7.7) 422.7 105,252 (8.0) 464.2 ≥80 41,394 (6.4) 842.0 72,901 (10.8) 940.0 114,295 (8.7) 902.0 All ages 646,358 (100.0) 401.1 674,130 (100.0) 406.0 1,320,488 (100.0) 403.6 Abbreviation: COVID-19 = coronavirus disease 2019. * Per 100,000 population. † The analytic dataset excludes cases reported through case surveillance that were missing information on sex (n = 19,918) or age (n = 2,379). Symptom status (symptomatic versus asymptomatic) was reported for 616,541 (47%) cases; among these, 22,007 (4%) were asymptomatic. Among 373,883 (28%) cases with data on individual symptoms, 70% noted fever, cough, or shortness of breath; 36% reported muscle aches, and 34% reported headache (Table 2). Overall, 31,191 (8%) persons reported loss of smell or taste. §§§§ Among patients aged ≥80 years, 60% reported fever, cough, or shortness of breath. No other symptoms were reported by >10% of persons in this age group. TABLE 2 Reported underlying health conditions* and symptoms † among persons with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19, by sex and age group — United States, January 22–May 30, 2020 Characteristic No. (%) Total Sex Age group (yrs) Male Female ≤9 10–19 20–29 30–39 40–49 50–59 60–69 70–79 ≥80 Total population 1,320,488 646,358 674,130 20,458 49,245 182,469 214,849 219,139 235,774 179,007 105,252 114,295 Underlying health condition§ Known underlying medical condition status* 287,320 (21.8) 138,887 (21.5) 148,433 (22.0) 2,896 (14.2) 7,123 (14.5) 27,436 (15.0) 33,483 (15.6) 40,572 (18.5) 54,717 (23.2) 50,125 (28.0) 34,400 (32.7) 36,568 (32.0) Any cardiovascular disease¶ 92,546 (32.2) 47,567 (34.2) 44,979 (30.3) 78 (2.7) 164 (2.3) 1,177 (4.3) 3,588 (10.7) 8,198 (20.2) 16,954 (31.0) 21,466 (42.8) 18,763 (54.5) 22,158 (60.6) Any chronic lung disease 50,148 (17.5) 20,930 (15.1) 29,218 (19.7) 363 (12.5) 1,285 (18) 4,537 (16.5) 5,110 (15.3) 6,127 (15.1) 8,722 (15.9) 9,200 (18.4) 7,436 (21.6) 7,368 (20.1) Renal disease 21,908 (7.6) 12,144 (8.7) 9,764 (6.6) 21 (0.7) 34 (0.5) 204 (0.7) 587 (1.8) 1,273 (3.1) 2,789 (5.1) 4,764 (9.5) 5,401 (15.7) 6,835 (18.7) Diabetes 86,737 (30.2) 45,089 (32.5) 41,648 (28.1) 12 (0.4) 225 (3.2) 1,409 (5.1) 4,106 (12.3) 9,636 (23.8) 19,589 (35.8) 22,314 (44.5) 16,594 (48.2) 12,852 (35.1) Liver disease 3,953 (1.4) 2,439 (1.8) 1,514 (1.0) 5 (0.2) 19 (0.3) 132 (0.5) 390 (1.2) 573 (1.4) 878 (1.6) 1,074 (2.1) 583 (1.7) 299 (0.8) Immunocompromised 15,265 (5.3) 7,345 (5.3) 7,920 (5.3) 61 (2.1) 146 (2.0) 646 (2.4) 1,253 (3.7) 2,005 (4.9) 3,190 (5.8) 3,421 (6.8) 2,486 (7.2) 2,057 (5.6) Neurologic/Neurodevelopmental disability 13,665 (4.8) 6,193 (4.5) 7,472 (5.0) 41 (1.4) 113 (1.6) 395 (1.4) 533 (1.6) 734 (1.8) 1,338 (2.4) 2,006 (4.0) 2,759 (8.0) 5,746 (15.7) Symptom§ Known symptom status† 373,883 (28.3) 178,223 (27.6) 195,660 (29.0) 5,188 (25.4) 12,689 (25.8) 51,464 (28.2) 59,951 (27.9) 62,643 (28.6) 70,040 (29.7) 52,178 (29.1) 28,583 (27.2) 31,147 (27.3) Fever, cough, or shortness of breath 260,706 (69.7) 125,768 (70.6) 134,938 (69.0) 3,278 (63.2) 7,584 (59.8) 35,072 (68.1) 42,016 (70.1) 45,361 (72.4) 51,283 (73.2) 37,701 (72.3) 19,583 (68.5) 18,828 (60.4) Fever †† 161,071 (43.1) 80,578 (45.2) 80,493 (41.1) 2,404 (46.3) 4,443 (35.0) 20,381 (39.6) 25,887 (43.2) 28,407 (45.3) 32,375 (46.2) 23,591 (45.2) 12,190 (42.6) 11,393 (36.6) Cough 187,953 (50.3) 89,178 (50.0) 98,775 (50.5) 1,912 (36.9) 5,257 (41.4) 26,284 (51.1) 31,313 (52.2) 34,031 (54.3) 38,305 (54.7) 27,150 (52.0) 12,837 (44.9) 10,864 (34.9) Shortness of breath 106,387 (28.5) 49,834 (28.0) 56,553 (28.9) 339 (6.5) 2,070 (16.3) 13,649 (26.5) 16,851 (28.1) 18,978 (30.3) 21,327 (30.4) 16,018 (30.7) 8,971 (31.4) 8,184 (26.3) Myalgia 135,026 (36.1) 61,922 (34.7) 73,104 (37.4) 537 (10.4) 3,737 (29.5) 21,153 (41.1) 26,464 (44.1) 28,064 (44.8) 28,594 (40.8) 17,360 (33.3) 6,015 (21.0) 3,102 (10.0) Runny nose 22,710 (6.1) 9,900 (5.6) 12,810 (6.5) 354 (6.8) 1,025 (8.1) 4,591 (8.9) 4,406 (7.3) 4,141 (6.6) 4,100 (5.9) 2,671 (5.1) 923 (3.2) 499 (1.6) Sore throat 74,840 (20.0) 31,244 (17.5) 43,596 (22.3) 664 (12.8) 3,628 (28.6) 14,493 (28.2) 14,855 (24.8) 14,490 (23.1) 13,930 (19.9) 8,192 (15.7) 2,867 (10.0) 1,721 (5.5) Headache 128,560 (34.4) 54,721 (30.7) 73,839 (37.7) 785 (15.1) 5,315 (41.9) 23,723 (46.1) 26,142 (43.6) 26,245 (41.9) 26,057 (37.2) 14,735 (28.2) 4,163 (14.6) 1,395 (4.5) Nausea/Vomiting 42,813 (11.5) 16,549 (9.3) 26,264 (13.4) 506 (9.8) 1,314 (10.4) 6,648 (12.9) 7,661 (12.8) 8,091 (12.9) 8,737 (12.5) 5,953 (11.4) 2,380 (8.3) 1,523 (4.9) Abdominal pain 28,443 (7.6) 11,553 (6.5) 16,890 (8.6) 349 (6.7) 978 (7.7) 4,211 (8.2) 5,150 (8.6) 5,531 (8.8) 6,134 (8.8) 3,809 (7.3) 1,449 (5.1) 832 (2.7) Diarrhea 72,039 (19.3) 32,093 (18.0) 39,946 (20.4) 704 (13.6) 1,712 (13.5) 9,867 (19.2) 12,769 (21.3) 13,958 (22.3) 15,536 (22.2) 10,349 (19.8) 4,402 (15.4) 2,742 (8.8) Loss of smell or taste 31,191 (8.3) 12,717 (7.1) 18,474 (9.4) 67 (1.3) 1,257 (9.9) 6,828 (13.3) 6,907 (11.5) 6,361 (10.2) 5,828 (8.3) 2,930 (5.6) 775 (2.7) 238 (0.8) Abbreviation: COVID-19 = coronavirus disease 2019. * Status of underlying health conditions known for 287,320 persons. Status was classified as “known” if any of the following conditions were reported as present or absent: diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease (including hypertension), severe obesity (body mass index ≥40 kg/m2), chronic renal disease, chronic liver disease, chronic lung disease, immunocompromising condition, autoimmune condition, neurologic condition (including neurodevelopmental, intellectual, physical, visual, or hearing impairment), psychologic/psychiatric condition, and other underlying medical condition not otherwise specified. † Symptom status was known for 373,883 persons. Status was classified as “known” if any of the following symptoms were reported as present or absent: fever (measured >100.4°F [38°C] or subjective), cough, shortness of breath, wheezing, difficulty breathing, chills, rigors, myalgia, rhinorrhea, sore throat, chest pain, nausea or vomiting, abdominal pain, headache, fatigue, diarrhea (≥3 loose stools in a 24-hour period), or other symptom not otherwise specified on the form. § Responses include data from standardized fields supplemented with data from free-text fields. Information for persons with loss of smell or taste was exclusively extracted from a free-text field; therefore, persons exhibiting this symptom were likely underreported. ¶ Includes persons with reported hypertension. ** Includes all persons with at least one of these symptoms reported. †† Persons were considered to have a fever if information on either measured or subjective fever variables if “yes” was reported for either variable. Among 287,320 (22%) cases with data on individual underlying health conditions, those most frequently reported were cardiovascular disease (32%), diabetes (30%), and chronic lung disease (18%) (Table 2); the reported proportions were similar among males and females. The frequency of conditions reported varied by age group: cardiovascular disease was uncommon among those aged ≤39 years but was reported in approximately half of the cases among persons aged ≥70 years. Among 63,896 females aged 15–44 years with known pregnancy status, 6,708 (11%) were reported to be pregnant. Among the 1,320,488 cases, outcomes for hospitalization, ICU admission, and death were available for 46%, 14%, and 36%, respectively. Overall, 184,673 (14%) patients were hospitalized, including 29,837 (2%) admitted to the ICU; 71,116 (5%) patients died (Table 3). Severe outcomes were more commonly reported for patients with reported underlying conditions. Hospitalizations were six times higher among patients with a reported underlying condition than those without reported underlying conditions (45.4% versus 7.6%). Deaths were 12 times higher among patients with reported underlying conditions compared with those without reported underlying conditions (19.5% versus 1.6%). The percentages of males who were hospitalized (16%), admitted to the ICU (3%), and who died (6%) were higher than were those for females (12%, 2%, and 5%, respectively). The percentage of ICU admissions was highest among persons with reported underlying conditions aged 60–69 years (11%) and 70–79 years (12%). Death was most commonly reported among persons aged ≥80 years regardless of the presence of underlying conditions (with underlying conditions 50%; without 30%). TABLE 3 Reported hospitalizations,* , † intensive care unit (ICU) admissions, § and deaths ¶ among laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients with and without reported underlying health conditions, ** by sex and age — United States, January 22–May 30, 2020 Characteristic (no.) Outcome, no./total no. (%)†† Reported hospitalizations*,† (including ICU) Reported ICU admission§ Reported deaths¶ Among all patients Among patients with reported underlying health conditions Among patients with no reported underlying health conditions Among all patients Among patients with reported underlying health conditions Among patients with no reported underlying health conditions Among all patients Among patients with reported underlying health conditions Among patients with no reported underlying health conditions Sex Male (646,358) 101,133/646,358 (15.6) 49,503/96,839 (51.1) 3,596/42,048 (8.6) 18,394/646,358 (2.8) 10,302/96,839 (10.6) 864/42,048 (2.1) 38,773/646,358 (6.0) 21,667/96,839 (22.4) 724/42,048 (1.7) Female (674,130) 83,540/674,130 (12.4) 40,698/102,040 (39.9) 3,087/46,393 (6.7) 11,443/674,130 (1.7) 6,672/102,040 (6.5) 479/46,393 (1.0) 32,343/674,130 (4.8) 17,145/102,040 (16.8) 707/46,393 (1.5) Age group (yrs) ≤9 (20,458) 848/20,458 (4.1) 138/619 (22.3) 84/2,277 (3.7) 141/20,458 (0.7) 31/619 (5.0) 16/2,277 (0.7) 13/20,458 (0.1) 4/619 (0.6) 2/2,277 (0.1) 10–19 (49,245) 1,234/49,245 (2.5) 309/2,076 (14.9) 115/5,047 (2.3) 216/49,245 (0.4) 72/2,076 (3.5) 17/5,047 (0.3) 33/49,245 (0.1) 16/2,076 (0.8) 4/5,047 (0.1) 20–29 (182,469) 6,704/182,469 (3.7) 1,559/8,906 (17.5) 498/18,530 (2.7) 864/182,469 (0.5) 300/8,906 (3.4) 56/18,530 (0.3) 273/182,469 (0.1) 122/8,906 (1.4) 24/18,530 (0.1) 30–39 (214,849) 12,570/214,849 (5.9) 3,596/14,854 (24.2) 828/18,629 (4.4) 1,879/214,849 (0.9) 787/14,854 (5.3) 135/18,629 (0.7) 852/214,849 (0.4) 411/14,854 (2.8) 21/18,629 (0.1) 40–49 (219,139) 19,318/219,139 (8.8) 7,151/24,161 (29.6) 1,057/16,411 (6.4) 3,316/219,139 (1.5) 1,540/24,161 (6.4) 208/16,411 (1.3) 2,083/219,139 (1.0) 1,077/24,161 (4.5) 58/16,411 (0.4) 50–59 (235,774) 31,588/235,774 (13.4) 14,639/40,297 (36.3) 1,380/14,420 (9.6) 5,986/235,774 (2.5) 3,335/40,297 (8.3) 296/14,420 (2.1) 5,639/235,774 (2.4) 3,158/40,297 (7.8) 131/14,420 (0.9) 60–69 (179,007) 39,422/179,007 (22.0) 21,064/42,206 (49.9) 1,216/7,919 (15.4) 7,403/179,007 (4.1) 4,588/42,206 (10.9) 291/7,919 (3.7) 11,947/179,007 (6.7) 7,050/42,206 (16.7) 187/7,919 (2.4) 70–79 (105,252) 35,844/105,252 (34.1) 20,451/31,601 (64.7) 780/2,799 (27.9) 5,939/105,252 (5.6) 3,771/31,601 (11.9) 199/2,799 (7.1) 17,510/105,252 (16.6) 10,008/31,601 (31.7) 286/2,799 (10.2) ≥80 (114,295) 37,145/114,295 (32.5) 21,294/34,159 (62.3) 725/2,409 (30.1) 4,093/114,295 (3.6) 2,550/34,159 (7.5) 125/2,409 (5.2) 32,766/114,295 (28.7) 16,966/34,159 (49.7) 718/2,409 (29.8) Total (1,320,488) 184,673/1,320,488 (14.0) 90,201/198,879 (45.4) 6,683/88,441 (7.6) 29,837/1,320,488 (2.3) 16,974/198,879 (8.5) 1,343/88,441 (1.5) 71,116/1,320,488 (5.4) 38,812/198,879 (19.5) 1,431/88,441 (1.6) Abbreviation: COVID-19 = coronavirus disease 2019. * Hospitalization status was known for 600,860 (46%). Among 184,673 hospitalized patients, the presence of underlying health conditions was known for 96,884 (53%). † Includes reported ICU admissions. § ICU admission status was known for 186,563 (14%) patients among the total case population, representing 34% of hospitalized patients. Among 29,837 patients admitted to the ICU, the status of underlying health conditions was known for 18,317 (61%). ¶ Death outcomes were known for 480,565 (36%) patients. Among 71,116 reported deaths through case surveillance, the status of underlying health conditions was known for 40,243 (57%) patients. ** Status of underlying health conditions was known for 287,320 (22%) patients. Status was classified as “known” if any of the following conditions were noted as present or absent: diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease including hypertension, severe obesity body mass index ≥40 kg/m2, chronic renal disease, chronic liver disease, chronic lung disease, any immunocompromising condition, any autoimmune condition, any neurologic condition including neurodevelopmental, intellectual, physical, visual, or hearing impairment, any psychologic/psychiatric condition, and any other underlying medical condition not otherwise specified. †† Outcomes were calculated as the proportion of persons reported to be hospitalized, admitted to an ICU, or who died among total in the demographic group. Outcome underreporting could result from outcomes that occurred but were not reported through national case surveillance or through clinical progression to severe outcomes that occurred after time of report. Discussion As of May 30, a total of 1,761,503 aggregate U.S. cases of COVID-19 and 103,700 associated deaths were reported to CDC. Although average daily reported cases and deaths are declining, 7-day moving averages of daily incidence of COVID-19 cases indicate ongoing community transmission. ¶¶¶¶ The COVID-19 case data summarized here are essential statistics for the pandemic response and rely on information systems developed at the local, state, and federal level over decades for communicable disease surveillance that were rapidly adapted to meet an enormous, new public health threat. CDC aggregate counts are consistent with those presented through the Johns Hopkins University (JHU) Coronavirus Resource Center, which reported a cumulative total of 1,770,165 U.S. cases and 103,776 U.S. deaths on May 30, 2020.***** Differences in aggregate counts between CDC and JHU might be attributable to differences in reporting practices to CDC and jurisdictional websites accessed by JHU. Reported cumulative incidence in the case surveillance population among persons aged ≥20 years is notably higher than that among younger persons. The lower incidence in persons aged ≤19 years could be attributable to undiagnosed milder or asymptomatic illnesses among this age group that were not reported. Incidence in persons aged ≥80 years was nearly double that in persons aged 70–79 years. Among cases with known race and ethnicity, 33% of persons were Hispanic, 22% were black, and 1.3% were AI/AN. These findings suggest that persons in these groups, who account for 18%, 13%, and 0.7% of the U.S. population, respectively, are disproportionately affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. The proportion of missing race and ethnicity data limits the conclusions that can be drawn from descriptive analyses; however, these findings are consistent with an analysis of COVID-19–Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network (COVID-NET) ††††† data that found higher proportions of black and Hispanic persons among hospitalized COVID-19 patients than were in the overall population ( 4 ). The completeness of race and ethnicity variables in case surveillance has increased from 20% to >40% from April 2 to June 2. Although reporting of race and ethnicity continues to improve, more complete data might be available in aggregate on jurisdictional websites or through sources like the COVID Tracking Project’s COVID Racial Data Tracker. §§§§§ The data in this report show that the prevalence of reported symptoms varied by age group but was similar among males and females. Fewer than 5% of persons were reported to be asymptomatic when symptom data were submitted. Persons without symptoms might be less likely to be tested for COVID-19 because initial guidance recommended testing of only symptomatic persons and was hospital-based. Guidance on testing has evolved throughout the response. ¶¶¶¶¶ Whereas incidence among males and females was similar overall, severe outcomes were more commonly reported among males. Prevalence of reported severe outcomes increased with age; the percentages of hospitalizations, ICU admissions, and deaths were highest among persons aged ≥70 years, regardless of underlying conditions, and lowest among those aged ≤19 years. Hospitalizations were six times higher and deaths 12 times higher among those with reported underlying conditions compared with those with none reported. These findings are consistent with previous reports that found that severe outcomes increased with age and underlying condition, and males were hospitalized at a higher rate than were females ( 2 , 4 , 5 ). The findings in this report are subject to at least three limitations. First, case surveillance data represent a subset of the total cases of COVID-19 in the United States; not every case in the community is captured through testing and information collected might be limited if persons are unavailable or unwilling to participate in case investigations or if medical records are unavailable for data extraction. Reported cumulative incidence, although comparable across age and sex groups within the case surveillance population, are underestimates of the U.S. cumulative incidence of COVID-19. Second, reported frequencies of individual symptoms and underlying health conditions presented from case surveillance likely underestimate the true prevalence because of missing data. Finally, asymptomatic cases are not captured well in case surveillance. Asymptomatic persons are unlikely to seek testing unless they are identified through active screening (e.g., contact tracing), and, because of limitations in testing capacity and in accordance with guidance, investigation of symptomatic persons is prioritized. Increased identification and reporting of asymptomatic cases could affect patterns described in this report. Similar to earlier reports on COVID-19 case surveillance, severe outcomes were more commonly reported among persons who were older and those with underlying health conditions ( 1 ). Findings in this report align with demographic and severe outcome trends identified through COVID-NET ( 4 ). Findings from case surveillance are evaluated along with enhanced surveillance data and serologic survey results to provide a comprehensive picture of COVID-19 trends, and differences in proportion of cases by racial and ethnic groups should continue to be examined in enhanced surveillance to better understand populations at highest risk. Since the U.S. COVID-19 response began in January, CDC has built on existing surveillance capacity to monitor the impact of illness nationally. Collection of detailed case data is a resource-intensive public health activity, regardless of disease incidence. The high incidence of COVID-19 has highlighted limitations of traditional public health case surveillance approaches to provide real-time intelligence and supports the need for continued innovation and modernization. Despite limitations, national case surveillance of COVID-19 serves a critical role in the U.S. COVID-19 response: these data demonstrate that the COVID-19 pandemic is an ongoing public health crisis in the United States that continues to affect all populations and result in severe outcomes including death. National case surveillance findings provide important information for targeted enhanced surveillance efforts and development of interventions critical to the U.S. COVID-19 response. Summary What is already known about this topic? Surveillance data reported to CDC through April 2020 indicated that COVID-19 leads to severe outcomes in older adults and those with underlying health conditions. What is added by this report? As of May 30, 2020, among COVID-19 cases, the most common underlying health conditions were cardiovascular disease (32%), diabetes (30%), and chronic lung disease (18%). Hospitalizations were six times higher and deaths 12 times higher among those with reported underlying conditions compared with those with none reported. What are the implications for public health practice? Surveillance at all levels of government, and its continued modernization, is critical for monitoring COVID-19 trends and identifying groups at risk for infection and severe outcomes. These findings highlight the continued need for community mitigation strategies, especially for vulnerable populations, to slow COVID-19 transmission.

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          SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Children

          To the Editor: As of March 10, 2020, the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has been responsible for more than 110,000 infections and 4000 deaths worldwide, but data regarding the epidemiologic characteristics and clinical features of infected children are limited. 1-3 A recent review of 72,314 cases by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention showed that less than 1% of the cases were in children younger than 10 years of age. 2 In order to determine the spectrum of disease in children, we evaluated children infected with SARS-CoV-2 and treated at the Wuhan Children’s Hospital, the only center assigned by the central government for treating infected children under 16 years of age in Wuhan. Both symptomatic and asymptomatic children with known contact with persons having confirmed or suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection were evaluated. Nasopharyngeal or throat swabs were obtained for detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA by established methods. 4 The clinical outcomes were monitored up to March 8, 2020. Of the 1391 children assessed and tested from January 28 through February 26, 2020, a total of 171 (12.3%) were confirmed to have SARS-CoV-2 infection. Demographic data and clinical features are summarized in Table 1. (Details of the laboratory and radiologic findings are provided in the Supplementary Appendix, available with the full text of this letter at NEJM.org.) The median age of the infected children was 6.7 years. Fever was present in 41.5% of the children at any time during the illness. Other common signs and symptoms included cough and pharyngeal erythema. A total of 27 patients (15.8%) did not have any symptoms of infection or radiologic features of pneumonia. A total of 12 patients had radiologic features of pneumonia but did not have any symptoms of infection. During the course of hospitalization, 3 patients required intensive care support and invasive mechanical ventilation; all had coexisting conditions (hydronephrosis, leukemia [for which the patient was receiving maintenance chemotherapy], and intussusception). Lymphopenia (lymphocyte count, <1.2×109 per liter) was present in 6 patients (3.5%). The most common radiologic finding was bilateral ground-glass opacity (32.7%). As of March 8, 2020, there was one death. A 10-month-old child with intussusception had multiorgan failure and died 4 weeks after admission. A total of 21 patients were in stable condition in the general wards, and 149 have been discharged from the hospital. This report describes a spectrum of illness from SARS-CoV-2 infection in children. In contrast with infected adults, most infected children appear to have a milder clinical course. Asymptomatic infections were not uncommon. 2 Determination of the transmission potential of these asymptomatic patients is important for guiding the development of measures to control the ongoing pandemic.
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            Hospitalization Rates and Characteristics of Patients Hospitalized with Laboratory-Confirmed Coronavirus Disease 2019 — COVID-NET, 14 States, March 1–30, 2020

            Since SARS-CoV-2, the novel coronavirus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), was first detected in December 2019 ( 1 ), approximately 1.3 million cases have been reported worldwide ( 2 ), including approximately 330,000 in the United States ( 3 ). To conduct population-based surveillance for laboratory-confirmed COVID-19–associated hospitalizations in the United States, the COVID-19–Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network (COVID-NET) was created using the existing infrastructure of the Influenza Hospitalization Surveillance Network (FluSurv-NET) ( 4 ) and the Respiratory Syncytial Virus Hospitalization Surveillance Network (RSV-NET). This report presents age-stratified COVID-19–associated hospitalization rates for patients admitted during March 1–28, 2020, and clinical data on patients admitted during March 1–30, 2020, the first month of U.S. surveillance. Among 1,482 patients hospitalized with COVID-19, 74.5% were aged ≥50 years, and 54.4% were male. The hospitalization rate among patients identified through COVID-NET during this 4-week period was 4.6 per 100,000 population. Rates were highest (13.8) among adults aged ≥65 years. Among 178 (12%) adult patients with data on underlying conditions as of March 30, 2020, 89.3% had one or more underlying conditions; the most common were hypertension (49.7%), obesity (48.3%), chronic lung disease (34.6%), diabetes mellitus (28.3%), and cardiovascular disease (27.8%). These findings suggest that older adults have elevated rates of COVID-19–associated hospitalization and the majority of persons hospitalized with COVID-19 have underlying medical conditions. These findings underscore the importance of preventive measures (e.g., social distancing, respiratory hygiene, and wearing face coverings in public settings where social distancing measures are difficult to maintain) † to protect older adults and persons with underlying medical conditions, as well as the general public. In addition, older adults and persons with serious underlying medical conditions should avoid contact with persons who are ill and immediately contact their health care provider(s) if they have symptoms consistent with COVID-19 (https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/symptoms-testing/symptoms.html) ( 5 ). Ongoing monitoring of hospitalization rates, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of hospitalized patients will be important to better understand the evolving epidemiology of COVID-19 in the United States and the clinical spectrum of disease, and to help guide planning and prioritization of health care system resources. COVID-NET conducts population-based surveillance for laboratory-confirmed COVID-19–associated hospitalizations among persons of all ages in 99 counties in 14 states (California, Colorado, Connecticut, Georgia, Iowa, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, New Mexico, New York, Ohio, Oregon, Tennessee, and Utah), distributed across all 10 U.S Department of Health and Human Services regions. § The catchment area represents approximately 10% of the U.S. population. Patients must be residents of a designated COVID-NET catchment area and hospitalized within 14 days of a positive SARS-CoV-2 test to meet the surveillance case definition. Testing is requested at the discretion of treating health care providers. Laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 is defined as a positive result by any test that has received Emergency Use Authorization for SARS-CoV-2 testing. ¶ COVID-NET surveillance officers in each state identify cases through active review of notifiable disease and laboratory databases and hospital admission and infection control practitioner logs. Weekly age-stratified hospitalization rates are estimated using the number of catchment area residents hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 as the numerator and National Center for Health Statistics vintage 2018 bridged-race postcensal population estimates for the denominator.** As of April 3, 2020, COVID-NET hospitalization rates are being published each week at https://gis.cdc.gov/grasp/covidnet/COVID19_3.html. For each case, trained surveillance officers conduct medical chart abstractions using a standard case report form to collect data on patient characteristics, underlying medical conditions, clinical course, and outcomes. Chart reviews are finalized once patients have a discharge disposition. COVID-NET surveillance was initiated on March 23, 2020, with retrospective case identification of patients admitted during March 1–22, 2020, and prospective case identification during March 23–30, 2020. Clinical data on underlying conditions and symptoms at admission are presented through March 30; hospitalization rates are updated weekly and, therefore, are presented through March 28 (epidemiologic week 13). The COVID-19–associated hospitalization rate among patients identified through COVID-NET for the 4-week period ending March 28, 2020, was 4.6 per 100,000 population (Figure 1). Hospitalization rates increased with age, with a rate of 0.3 in persons aged 0–4 years, 0.1 in those aged 5–17 years, 2.5 in those aged 18–49 years, 7.4 in those aged 50–64 years, and 13.8 in those aged ≥65 years. Rates were highest among persons aged ≥65 years, ranging from 12.2 in those aged 65–74 years to 17.2 in those aged ≥85 years. More than half (805; 54.4%) of hospitalizations occurred among men; COVID-19-associated hospitalization rates were higher among males than among females (5.1 versus 4.1 per 100,000 population). Among the 1,482 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19–associated hospitalizations reported through COVID-NET, six (0.4%) each were patients aged 0–4 years and 5–17 years, 366 (24.7%) were aged 18–49 years, 461 (31.1%) were aged 50–64 years, and 643 (43.4%) were aged ≥65 years. Among patients with race/ethnicity data (580), 261 (45.0%) were non-Hispanic white (white), 192 (33.1%) were non-Hispanic black (black), 47 (8.1%) were Hispanic, 32 (5.5%) were Asian, two (0.3%) were American Indian/Alaskan Native, and 46 (7.9%) were of other or unknown race. Rates varied widely by COVID-NET surveillance site (Figure 2). FIGURE 1 Laboratory-confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)–associated hospitalization rates,* by age group — COVID-NET, 14 states, † March 1–28, 2020 Abbreviation: COVID-NET = Coronavirus Disease 2019–Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network. * Number of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 per 100,000 population. † Counties included in COVID-NET surveillance: California (Alameda, Contra Costa, and San Francisco counties); Colorado (Adams, Arapahoe, Denver, Douglas, and Jefferson counties); Connecticut (New Haven and Middlesex counties); Georgia (Clayton, Cobb, DeKalb, Douglas, Fulton, Gwinnett, Newton, and Rockdale counties); Iowa (one county represented); Maryland (Allegany, Anne Arundel, Baltimore, Baltimore City, Calvert, Caroline, Carroll, Cecil, Charles, Dorchester, Frederick, Garrett, Harford, Howard, Kent, Montgomery, Prince George’s, Queen Anne’s, St. Mary’s, Somerset, Talbot, Washington, Wicomico, and Worcester counties); Michigan (Clinton, Eaton, Genesee, Ingham, and Washtenaw counties); Minnesota (Anoka, Carver, Dakota, Hennepin, Ramsey, Scott, and Washington counties); New Mexico (Bernalillo, Chaves, Dona Ana, Grant, Luna, San Juan, and Santa Fe counties); New York (Albany, Columbia, Genesee, Greene, Livingston, Monroe, Montgomery, Ontario, Orleans, Rensselaer, Saratoga, Schenectady, Schoharie, Wayne, and Yates counties); Ohio (Delaware, Fairfield, Franklin, Hocking, Licking, Madison, Morrow, Perry, Pickaway and Union counties); Oregon (Clackamas, Multnomah, and Washington counties); Tennessee (Cheatham, Davidson, Dickson, Robertson, Rutherford, Sumner, Williamson, and Wilson counties); and Utah (Salt Lake County). The figure is a bar chart showing laboratory-confirmed COVID-19–associated hospitalization rates, by age group, in 14 states during March 1–28, 2020 according to the Coronavirus Disease 2019–Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network. FIGURE 2 Laboratory-confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)–associated hospitalization rates,* by surveillance site † — COVID-NET, 14 states, March 1–28, 2020 Abbreviation: COVID-NET = Coronavirus Disease 2019–Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network. * Number of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 per 100,000 population. † Counties included in COVID-NET surveillance: California (Alameda, Contra Costa, and San Francisco counties); Colorado (Adams, Arapahoe, Denver, Douglas, and Jefferson counties); Connecticut (New Haven and Middlesex counties); Georgia (Clayton, Cobb, DeKalb, Douglas, Fulton, Gwinnett, Newton, and Rockdale counties); Iowa (one county represented); Maryland (Allegany, Anne Arundel, Baltimore, Baltimore City, Calvert, Caroline, Carroll, Cecil, Charles, Dorchester, Frederick, Garrett, Harford, Howard, Kent, Montgomery, Prince George’s, Queen Anne’s, St. Mary’s, Somerset, Talbot, Washington, Wicomico, and Worcester counties); Michigan (Clinton, Eaton, Genesee, Ingham, and Washtenaw counties); Minnesota (Anoka, Carver, Dakota, Hennepin, Ramsey, Scott, and Washington counties); New Mexico (Bernalillo, Chaves, Dona Ana, Grant, Luna, San Juan, and Santa Fe counties); New York (Albany, Columbia, Genesee, Greene, Livingston, Monroe, Montgomery, Ontario, Orleans, Rensselaer, Saratoga, Schenectady, Schoharie, Wayne, and Yates counties); Ohio (Delaware, Fairfield, Franklin, Hocking, Licking, Madison, Morrow, Perry, Pickaway and Union counties); Oregon (Clackamas, Multnomah, and Washington counties); Tennessee (Cheatham, Davidson, Dickson, Robertson, Rutherford, Sumner, Williamson, and Wilson counties); and Utah (Salt Lake County). The figure is a bar chart showing laboratory-confirmed COVID-19–associated hospitalization rates, by surveillance site, in 14 states during March 1–28, 2020 according to the Coronavirus Disease 2019–Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network. During March 1–30, underlying medical conditions and symptoms at admission were reported through COVID-NET for approximately 180 (12.1%) hospitalized adults (Table); 89.3% had one or more underlying conditions. The most commonly reported were hypertension (49.7%), obesity (48.3%), chronic lung disease (34.6%), diabetes mellitus (28.3%), and cardiovascular disease (27.8%). Among patients aged 18–49 years, obesity was the most prevalent underlying condition, followed by chronic lung disease (primarily asthma) and diabetes mellitus. Among patients aged 50–64 years, obesity was most prevalent, followed by hypertension and diabetes mellitus; and among those aged ≥65 years, hypertension was most prevalent, followed by cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. Among 33 females aged 15–49 years hospitalized with COVID-19, three (9.1%) were pregnant. Among 167 patients with available data, the median interval from symptom onset to admission was 7 days (interquartile range [IQR] = 3–9 days). The most common signs and symptoms at admission included cough (86.1%), fever or chills (85.0%), and shortness of breath (80.0%). Gastrointestinal symptoms were also common; 26.7% had diarrhea, and 24.4% had nausea or vomiting. TABLE Underlying conditions and symptoms among adults aged ≥18 years with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)–associated hospitalizations — COVID-NET, 14 states,* March 1–30, 2020† Underlying condition Age group (yrs), no./total no. (%) Overall 18–49 50–64 ≥65 years Any underlying condition 159/178 (89.3) 41/48 (85.4) 51/59 (86.4) 67/71 (94.4) Hypertension 79/159 (49.7) 7/40 (17.5) 27/57 (47.4) 45/62 (72.6) Obesity§ 73/151 (48.3) 23/39 (59.0) 25/51 (49.0) 25/61 (41.0) Chronic metabolic disease¶ 60/166 (36.1) 10/46 (21.7) 21/56 (37.5) 29/64 (45.3)    Diabetes mellitus 47/166 (28.3) 9/46 (19.6) 18/56 (32.1) 20/64 (31.3) Chronic lung disease 55/159 (34.6) 16/44 (36.4) 15/53 (28.3) 24/62 (38.7)    Asthma 27/159 (17.0) 12/44 (27.3) 7/53 (13.2) 8/62 (12.9)    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 17/159 (10.7) 0/44 (0.0) 3/53 (5.7) 14/62 (22.6) Cardiovascular disease** 45/162 (27.8) 2/43 (4.7) 11/56 (19.6) 32/63 (50.8)    Coronary artery disease 23/162 (14.2) 0/43 (0.0) 7/56 (12.5) 16/63 (25.4)    Congestive heart failure 11/162 (6.8) 2/43 (4.7) 3/56 (5.4) 6/63 (9.5) Neurologic disease 22/157 (14.0) 4/42 (9.5) 4/55 (7.3) 14/60 (23.3) Renal disease 20/153 (13.1) 3/41 (7.3) 2/53 (3.8) 15/59 (25.4) Immunosuppressive condition 15/156 (9.6) 5/43 (11.6) 4/54 (7.4) 6/59 (10.2) Gastrointestinal/Liver disease 10/152 (6.6) 4/42 (9.5) 0/54 (0.0) 6/56 (10.7) Blood disorder 9/156 (5.8) 1/43 (2.3) 1/55 (1.8) 7/58 (12.1) Rheumatologic/Autoimmune disease 3/154 (1.9) 1/42 (2.4) 0/54 (0.0) 2/58 (3.4) Pregnancy†† 3/33 (9.1) 3/33 (9.1) N/A N/A Symptom §§ Cough 155/180 (86.1) 43/47 (91.5) 54/60 (90.0) 58/73 (79.5) Fever/Chills 153/180 (85.0) 38/47 (80.9) 53/60 (88.3) 62/73 (84.9) Shortness of breath 144/180 (80.0) 40/47 (85.1) 50/60 (83.3) 54/73 (74.0) Myalgia 62/180 (34.4) 20/47 (42.6) 23/60 (38.3) 19/73 (26.0) Diarrhea 48/180 (26.7) 10/47 (21.3) 17/60 (28.3) 21/73 (28.8) Nausea/Vomiting 44/180 (24.4) 12/47 (25.5) 17/60 (28.3) 15/73 (20.5) Sore throat 32/180 (17.8) 8/47 (17.0) 13/60 (21.7) 11/73 (15.1) Headache 29/180 (16.1) 10/47 (21.3) 12/60 (20.0) 7/73 (9.6) Nasal congestion/Rhinorrhea 29/180 (16.1) 8/47 (17.0) 13/60 (21.7) 8/73 (11.0) Chest pain 27/180 (15.0) 9/47 (19.1) 13/60 (21.7) 5/73 (6.8) Abdominal pain 15/180 (8.3) 6/47 (12.8) 6/60 (10.0) 3/73 (4.1) Wheezing 12/180 (6.7) 3/47 (6.4) 2/60 (3.3) 7/73 (9.6) Altered mental status/Confusion 11/180 (6.1) 3/47 (6.4) 2/60 (3.3) 6/73 (8.2) Abbreviations: COVID-NET = Coronavirus Disease 2019–Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network; N/A = not applicable. * Counties included in COVID-NET surveillance: California (Alameda, Contra Costa, and San Francisco counties); Colorado (Adams, Arapahoe, Denver, Douglas, and Jefferson counties); Connecticut (New Haven and Middlesex counties); Georgia (Clayton, Cobb, DeKalb, Douglas, Fulton, Gwinnett, Newton, and Rockdale counties); Iowa (one county represented); Maryland (Allegany, Anne Arundel, Baltimore, Baltimore City, Calvert, Caroline, Carroll, Cecil, Charles, Dorchester, Frederick, Garrett, Harford, Howard, Kent, Montgomery, Prince George’s, Queen Anne’s, St. Mary’s, Somerset, Talbot, Washington, Wicomico, and Worcester counties); Michigan (Clinton, Eaton, Genesee, Ingham, and Washtenaw counties); Minnesota (Anoka, Carver, Dakota, Hennepin, Ramsey, Scott, and Washington counties); New Mexico (Bernalillo, Chaves, Dona Ana, Grant, Luna, San Juan, and Santa Fe counties); New York (Albany, Columbia, Genesee, Greene, Livingston, Monroe, Montgomery, Ontario, Orleans, Rensselaer, Saratoga, Schenectady, Schoharie, Wayne, and Yates counties); Ohio (Delaware, Fairfield, Franklin, Hocking, Licking, Madison, Morrow, Perry, Pickaway and Union counties); Oregon (Clackamas, Multnomah, and Washington counties); Tennessee (Cheatham, Davidson, Dickson, Robertson, Rutherford, Sumner, Williamson, and Wilson counties); and Utah (Salt Lake County). † COVID-NET included data for one child aged 5–17 years with underlying medical conditions and symptoms at admission; data for this child are not included in this table. This child was reported to have chronic lung disease (asthma). Symptoms included fever, cough, gastrointestinal symptoms, shortness of breath, chest pain, and a sore throat on admission. § Obesity is defined as calculated body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m2, and if BMI is missing, by International Classification of Diseases discharge diagnosis codes. Among 73 patients with obesity, 51 (69.9%) had obesity defined as BMI 30–<40 kg/m2, and 22 (30.1%) had severe obesity defined as BMI ≥40 kg/m2. ¶ Among the 60 patients with chronic metabolic disease, 45 had diabetes mellitus only, 13 had thyroid dysfunction only, and two had diabetes mellitus and thyroid dysfunction. ** Cardiovascular disease excludes hypertension. †† Restricted to women aged 15–49 years. §§ Symptoms were collected through review of admission history and physical exam notes in the medical record and might be determined by subjective or objective findings. In addition to the symptoms in the table, the following less commonly reported symptoms were also noted for adults with information on symptoms (180): hemoptysis/bloody sputum (2.2%), rash (1.1%), conjunctivitis (0.6%), and seizure (0.6%). Discussion During March 1–28, 2020, the overall laboratory-confirmed COVID-19–associated hospitalization rate was 4.6 per 100,000 population; rates increased with age, with the highest rates among adults aged ≥65 years. Approximately 90% of hospitalized patients identified through COVID-NET had one or more underlying conditions, the most common being obesity, hypertension, chronic lung disease, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease. Using the existing infrastructure of two respiratory virus surveillance platforms, COVID-NET was implemented to produce robust, weekly, age-stratified hospitalization rates using standardized data collection methods. These data are being used, along with data from other surveillance platforms (https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/covid-data/covidview.html), to monitor COVID-19 disease activity and severity in the United States. During the first month of surveillance, COVID-NET hospitalization rates ranged from 0.1 per 100,000 population in persons aged 5–17 years to 17.2 per 100,000 population in adults aged ≥85 years, whereas cumulative influenza hospitalization rates during the first 4 weeks of each influenza season (epidemiologic weeks 40–43) over the past 5 seasons have ranged from 0.1 in persons aged 5–17 years to 2.2–5.4 in adults aged ≥85 years ( 6 ). COVID-NET rates during this first 4-week period of surveillance are preliminary and should be interpreted with caution; given the rapidly evolving nature of the COVID-19 pandemic, rates are expected to increase as additional cases are identified and as SARS-CoV-2 testing capacity in the United States increases. In the COVID-NET catchment population, approximately 49% of residents are male and 51% of residents are female, whereas 54% of COVID-19-associated hospitalizations occurred in males and 46% occurred in females. These data suggest that males may be disproportionately affected by COVID-19 compared with females. Similarly, in the COVID-NET catchment population, approximately 59% of residents are white, 18% are black, and 14% are Hispanic; however, among 580 hospitalized COVID-19 patients with race/ethnicity data, approximately 45% were white, 33% were black, and 8% were Hispanic, suggesting that black populations might be disproportionately affected by COVID-19. These findings, including the potential impact of both sex and race on COVID-19-associated hospitalization rates, need to be confirmed with additional data. Most of the hospitalized patients had underlying conditions, some of which are recognized to be associated with severe COVID-19 disease, including chronic lung disease, cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus ( 5 ). COVID-NET does not collect data on nonhospitalized patients; thus, it was not possible to compare the prevalence of underlying conditions in hospitalized versus nonhospitalized patients. Many of the documented underlying conditions among hospitalized COVID-19 patients are highly prevalent in the United States. According to data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, hypertension prevalence among U.S. adults is 29% overall, ranging from 7.5%–63% across age groups ( 7 ), and age-adjusted obesity prevalence is 42% (range across age groups = 40%–43%) ( 8 ). Among hospitalized COVID-19 patients, hypertension prevalence was 50% (range across age groups = 18%–73%), and obesity prevalence was 48% (range across age groups = 41%–59%). In addition, the prevalences of several underlying conditions identified through COVID-NET were similar to those for hospitalized influenza patients identified through FluSurv-NET during influenza seasons 2014–15 through 2018–19: 41%–51% of patients had cardiovascular disease (excluding hypertension), 39%–45% had chronic metabolic disease, 33%–40% had obesity, and 29%–31% had chronic lung disease ( 6 ). Data on hypertension are not collected by FluSurv-NET. Among women aged 15–49 years hospitalized with COVID-19 and identified through COVID-NET, 9% were pregnant, which is similar to an estimated 9.9% of the general population of women aged 15–44 years who are pregnant at any given time based on 2010 data. †† Similar to other reports from the United States ( 9 ) and China ( 1 ), these findings indicate that a high proportion of U.S. patients hospitalized with COVID-19 are older and have underlying medical conditions. The findings in this report are subject to at least three limitations. First, hospitalization rates by age and COVID-NET site are preliminary and might change as additional cases are identified from this surveillance period. Second, whereas minimum case data to produce weekly age-stratified hospitalization rates are usually available within 7 days of case identification, availability of detailed clinical data are delayed because of the need for medical chart abstractions. As of March 30, chart abstractions had been conducted for approximately 200 COVID-19 patients; the frequency and distribution of underlying conditions during this time might change as additional data become available. Clinical course and outcomes will be presented once the number of cases with complete medical chart abstractions are sufficient; many patients are still hospitalized at the time of this report. Finally, testing for SARS-CoV-2 among patients identified through COVID-NET is performed at the discretion of treating health care providers, and testing practices and capabilities might vary widely across providers and facilities. As a result, underascertainment of cases in COVID-NET is likely. Additional data on testing practices related to SARS-CoV-2 will be collected in the future to account for underascertainment using described methods ( 10 ). Early data from COVID-NET suggest that COVID-19–associated hospitalizations in the United States are highest among older adults, and nearly 90% of persons hospitalized have one or more underlying medical conditions. These findings underscore the importance of preventive measures (e.g., social distancing, respiratory hygiene, and wearing face coverings in public settings where social distancing measures are difficult to maintain) to protect older adults and persons with underlying medical conditions. Ongoing monitoring of hospitalization rates, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of hospitalized patients will be important to better understand the evolving epidemiology of COVID-19 in the United States and the clinical spectrum of disease, and to help guide planning and prioritization of health care system resources. Summary What is already known about this topic? Population-based rates of laboratory-confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)–associated hospitalizations are lacking in the United States. What is added by this report? COVID-NET was implemented to produce robust, weekly, age-stratified COVID-19–associated hospitalization rates. Hospitalization rates increase with age and are highest among older adults; the majority of hospitalized patients have underlying conditions. What are the implications for public health practice? Strategies to prevent COVID-19, including social distancing, respiratory hygiene, and face coverings in public settings where social distancing measures are difficult to maintain, are particularly important to protect older adults and those with underlying conditions. Ongoing monitoring of hospitalization rates is critical to understanding the evolving epidemiology of COVID-19 in the United States and to guide planning and prioritization of health care resources.
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              Severe Outcomes Among Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) — United States, February 12–March 16, 2020

              On March 18, 2020, this report was posted online as an MMWR Early Release. Globally, approximately 170,000 confirmed cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) have been reported, including an estimated 7,000 deaths in approximately 150 countries ( 1 ). On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization declared the COVID-19 outbreak a pandemic ( 2 ). Data from China have indicated that older adults, particularly those with serious underlying health conditions, are at higher risk for severe COVID-19–associated illness and death than are younger persons ( 3 ). Although the majority of reported COVID-19 cases in China were mild (81%), approximately 80% of deaths occurred among adults aged ≥60 years; only one (0.1%) death occurred in a person aged ≤19 years ( 3 ). In this report, COVID-19 cases in the United States that occurred during February 12–March 16, 2020 and severity of disease (hospitalization, admission to intensive care unit [ICU], and death) were analyzed by age group. As of March 16, a total of 4,226 COVID-19 cases in the United States had been reported to CDC, with multiple cases reported among older adults living in long-term care facilities ( 4 ). Overall, 31% of cases, 45% of hospitalizations, 53% of ICU admissions, and 80% of deaths associated with COVID-19 were among adults aged ≥65 years with the highest percentage of severe outcomes among persons aged ≥85 years. In contrast, no ICU admissions or deaths were reported among persons aged ≤19 years. Similar to reports from other countries, this finding suggests that the risk for serious disease and death from COVID-19 is higher in older age groups. Data from cases reported from 49 states, the District of Columbia, and three U.S. territories ( 5 ) to CDC during February 12–March 16 were analyzed. Cases among persons repatriated to the United States from Wuhan, China and from Japan (including patients repatriated from cruise ships) were excluded. States and jurisdictions voluntarily reported data on laboratory-confirmed cases of COVID-19 using previously developed data collection forms ( 6 ). The cases described in this report include both COVID-19 cases confirmed by state or local public health laboratories as well as those with a positive test at the state or local public health laboratories and confirmation at CDC. No data on serious underlying health conditions were available. Data on these cases are preliminary and are missing for some key characteristics of interest, including hospitalization status (1,514), ICU admission (2,253), death (2,001), and age (386). Because of these missing data, the percentages of hospitalizations, ICU admissions, and deaths (case-fatality percentages) were estimated as a range. The lower bound of these percentages was estimated by using all cases within each age group as denominators. The corresponding upper bound of these percentages was estimated by using only cases with known information on each outcome as denominators. As of March 16, a total of 4,226 COVID-19 cases had been reported in the United States, with reports increasing to 500 or more cases per day beginning March 14 (Figure 1). Among 2,449 patients with known age, 6% were aged ≥85, 25% were aged 65–84 years, 18% each were aged 55–64 years and 45–54 years, and 29% were aged 20–44 years (Figure 2). Only 5% of cases occurred in persons aged 0–19 years. FIGURE 1 Number of new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases reported daily*,† (N = 4,226) — United States, February 12–March 16, 2020 * Includes both COVID-19 cases confirmed by state or local public health laboratories, as well as those testing positive at the state or local public health laboratories and confirmed at CDC. † Cases identified before February 28 were aggregated and reported during March 1–3. The figure is a histogram, an epidemiologic curve showing 4,226 coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases, by date of case report, in the United States during February 12–March 16, 2020. Figure 2 Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) hospitalizations,* intensive care unit (ICU) admissions, † and deaths, § by age group — United States, February 12– March 16, 2020 * Hospitalization status missing or unknown for 1,514 cases. † ICU status missing or unknown for 2,253 cases. § Illness outcome or death missing or unknown for 2,001 cases. The figure is a bar chart showing the number of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) hospitalizations, intensive care unit admissions, and deaths, by age group, in the United States during February 12– March 16, 2020. Among 508 (12%) patients known to have been hospitalized, 9% were aged ≥85 years, 36% were aged 65–84 years, 17% were aged 55–64 years, 18% were 45–54 years, and 20% were aged 20–44 years. Less than 1% of hospitalizations were among persons aged ≤19 years (Figure 2). The percentage of persons hospitalized increased with age, from 2%–3% among persons aged ≤19 years, to ≥31% among adults aged ≥85 years. (Table). TABLE Hospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and case–fatality percentages for reported COVID–19 cases, by age group —United States, February 12–March 16, 2020 Age group (yrs) (no. of cases) %* Hospitalization ICU admission Case-fatality 0–19 (123) 1.6–2.5 0 0 20–44 (705) 14.3–20.8 2.0–4.2 0.1–0.2 45–54 (429) 21.2–28.3 5.4–10.4 0.5–0.8 55–64 (429) 20.5–30.1 4.7–11.2 1.4–2.6 65–74 (409) 28.6–43.5 8.1–18.8 2.7–4.9 75–84 (210) 30.5–58.7 10.5–31.0 4.3–10.5 ≥85 (144) 31.3–70.3 6.3–29.0 10.4–27.3 Total (2,449) 20.7–31.4 4.9–11.5 1.8–3.4 * Lower bound of range = number of persons hospitalized, admitted to ICU, or who died among total in age group; upper bound of range = number of persons hospitalized, admitted to ICU, or who died among total in age group with known hospitalization status, ICU admission status, or death. Among 121 patients known to have been admitted to an ICU, 7% of cases were reported among adults ≥85 years, 46% among adults aged 65–84 years, 36% among adults aged 45–64 years, and 12% among adults aged 20–44 years (Figure 2). No ICU admissions were reported among persons aged ≤19 years. Percentages of ICU admissions were lowest among adults aged 20–44 years (2%–4%) and highest among adults aged 75–84 years (11%–31%) (Table). Among 44 cases with known outcome, 15 (34%) deaths were reported among adults aged ≥85 years, 20 (46%) among adults aged 65–84 years, and nine (20%) among adults aged 20–64 years. Case-fatality percentages increased with increasing age, from no deaths reported among persons aged ≤19 years to highest percentages (10%–27%) among adults aged ≥85 years (Table) (Figure 2). Discussion Since February 12, 4,226 COVID-19 cases were reported in the United States; 31% of cases, 45% of hospitalizations, 53% of ICU admissions, and 80% of deaths occurred among adults aged ≥65 years with the highest percentage of severe outcomes among persons aged ≥85 years. These findings are similar to data from China, which indicated >80% of deaths occurred among persons aged ≥60 years ( 3 ). These preliminary data also demonstrate that severe illness leading to hospitalization, including ICU admission and death, can occur in adults of any age with COVID-19. In contrast, persons aged ≤19 years appear to have milder COVID-19 illness, with almost no hospitalizations or deaths reported to date in the United States in this age group. Given the spread of COVID-19 in many U.S. communities, CDC continues to update current recommendations and develop new resources and guidance, including for adults aged ≥65 years as well as those involved in their care ( 7 , 8 ). Approximately 49 million U.S. persons are aged ≥65 years ( 9 ), and many of these adults, who are at risk for severe COVID-19–associated illness, might depend on services and support to maintain their health and independence. To prepare for potential COVID-19 illness among persons at high risk, family members and caregivers of older adults should know what medications they are taking and ensure that food and required medical supplies are available. Long-term care facilities should be particularly vigilant to prevent the introduction and spread of COVID-19 ( 10 ). In addition, clinicians who care for adults should be aware that COVID-19 can result in severe disease among persons of all ages. Persons with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 should monitor their symptoms and call their provider for guidance if symptoms worsen or seek emergency care for persistent severe symptoms. Additional guidance is available for health care providers on CDC’s website (https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-nCoV/hcp/index.html). This report describes the current epidemiology of COVID-19 in the United States, using preliminary data. The findings in this report are subject to at least five limitations. First, data were missing for key variables of interest. Data on age and outcomes, including hospitalization, ICU admission, and death, were missing for 9%–53% of cases, which likely resulted in an underestimation of these outcomes. Second, further time for follow-up is needed to ascertain outcomes among active cases. Third, the initial approach to testing was to identify patients among those with travel histories or persons with more severe disease, and these data might overestimate the prevalence of severe disease. Fourth, data on other risk factors, including serious underlying health conditions that could increase risk for complications and severe illness, were unavailable at the time of this analysis. Finally, limited testing to date underscores the importance of ongoing surveillance of COVID-19 cases. Additional investigation will increase the understanding about persons who are at risk for severe illness and death from COVID-19 and inform clinical guidance and community-based mitigation measures.* The risk for serious disease and death in COVID-19 cases among persons in the United States increases with age. Social distancing is recommended for all ages to slow the spread of the virus, protect the health care system, and help protect vulnerable older adults. Further, older adults should maintain adequate supplies of nonperishable foods and at least a 30-day supply of necessary medications, take precautions to keep space between themselves and others, stay away from those who are sick, avoid crowds as much as possible, avoid cruise travel and nonessential air travel, and stay home as much as possible to further reduce the risk of being exposed ( 7 ). Persons of all ages and communities can take actions to help slow the spread of COVID-19 and protect older adults. † Summary What is already known about this topic? Early data from China suggest that a majority of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) deaths have occurred among adults aged ≥60 years and among persons with serious underlying health conditions. What is added by this report? This first preliminary description of outcomes among patients with COVID-19 in the United States indicates that fatality was highest in persons aged ≥85, ranging from 10% to 27%, followed by 3% to 11% among persons aged 65–84 years, 1% to 3% among persons aged 55-64 years, <1% among persons aged 20–54 years, and no fatalities among persons aged ≤19 years. What are the implications for public health practice? COVID-19 can result in severe disease, including hospitalization, admission to an intensive care unit, and death, especially among older adults. Everyone can take actions, such as social distancing, to help slow the spread of COVID-19 and protect older adults from severe illness.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
                MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep.
                Centers for Disease Control MMWR Office
                0149-2195
                1545-861X
                June 15 2020
                June 15 2020
                June 15 2020
                June 15 2020
                : 69
                : 24
                Affiliations
                [1 ]CDC COVID-19 Emergency Response.
                Article
                10.15585/mmwr.mm6924e2
                672ae9d9-d822-4ab0-ab92-4bd574d98ec9
                © 2020
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