Anthemideae (Asteraceae) is primarily a north temperate, Old World tribe of 109 genera and approximately 1740 species. We sequenced a 1200-bp portion of chloroplast gene ndhF for representative genera and subtribes and constructed a phylogeny for the tribe. There is support for monophyly of subtribes Chrysantheminae and Gonosperminae and for portions of some subtribes. However, our molecular phylogeny differs significantly from traditional classifications and from previously published morphological phylogenies of the tribe. Many South African genera from several different subtribes form a basal grade, indicating multiple, relictual lineages. Eurasian genera form a recently derived clade that includes the Mediterranean genera of the Iberian Peninsula and North Africa. There is little resolution or support for the placement of eastern Asian genera. Apparently, the tribe originated in the Southern Hemisphere, presumably in Africa, with the Eurasian and Mediterranean members being derived from a common ancestor.