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Espiral construtivista: uma metodologia ativa de ensino-aprendizagem

Interface - Comunicação, Saúde, Educação

UNESP

Educação Superior, Aprendizagem ativa, Ensino, Metodologia, Higher education, Active learning, Teaching, Methodology, Educación superior, Aprendizaje activa, Enseñanza, Metodología

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      Abstract

      A partir da teoria sociointeracionista da educação e da trajetória das práticas pedagógicas nas sociedades ocidentais, o artigo apresenta a espiral construtivista como uma metodologia ativa de ensino-aprendizagem. Discute as origens e a utilização de metodologias ativas no ensino superior, focalizando: a aprendizagem baseada em problemas, a metodologia da problematização, o método científico e o uso de narrativas, simulações ou atuações em cenários reais de prática. A exploração da espiral construtivista, de acordo com os movimentos: “identificando problemas”; “formulando explicações”; “elaborando questões”; “construindo novos significados”; “avaliando processo e produtos”, destaca semelhanças e diferenças em relação às metodologias ativas focalizadas. Para além dos aspectos metodológicos envolvidos, a intencionalidade educacional na utilização da espiral construtivista é explicitada pela natureza dos disparadores de aprendizagem utilizados e pelo sentido transformador da realidade derivado da postura crítica e reflexiva na interação do “sujeito” e “objeto”.

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      Most cited references 124

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        Does problem-based learning work? A meta-analysis of evaluative research.

        The purpose of this review is to synthesize all available evaluative research from 1970 through 1992 that compares problem-based learning (PBL) with more traditional methods of medical education. Five separate meta-analyses were performed on 35 studies representing 19 institutions. For 22 of the studies (representing 14 institutions), both effect-size and supplementary vote-count analyses could be performed; otherwise, only supplementary analyses were performed. PBL was found to be significantly superior with respect to students' program evaluations (i.e., students' attitudes and opinions about their programs)--dw (standardized differences between means, weighted by sample size) = +.55, CI.95 = +.40 to +.70 - and measures of students' clinical performance (dw = +.28, CI.95 = +.16 to +.40). PBL and traditional methods did not differ on miscellaneous tests of factual knowledge (dw = -.09, CI.95 = +.06 to -.24) and tests of clinical knowledge (dw = +.08, CI.95 = -.05 to +.21). Traditional students performed significantly better than their PBL counterparts on the National Board of Medical Examiners Part I examination--NBME I (dw = -.18, CI.95 = -.10 to -.26). However, the NBME I data displayed significant overall heterogeneity (Qt = 192.23, p < .001) and significant differences among programs (Qb = 59.09, p < .001), which casts doubt on the generality of the findings across programs. The comparative value of PBL is also supported by data on outcomes that have been studied less frequently, i.e., faculty attitudes, student mood, class attendance, academic process variables, and measures of humanism. In conclusion, the results generally support the superiority of the PBL approach over more traditional methods. Acad. Med. 68 (1993):550-563.
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          How can experience in clinical and community settings contribute to early medical education? A BEME systematic review.

          Review period January 1992-December 2001. Final analysis July 2004-January 2005. BACKGROUND AND REVIEW CONTEXT: There has been no rigorous systematic review of the outcomes of early exposure to clinical and community settings in medical education. OBJECTIVES OF REVIEW: Identify published empirical evidence of the effects of early experience in medical education, analyse it, and synthesize conclusions from it. Identify the strengths and limitations of the research effort to date, and identify objectives for future research. Ovid search of: BEI, ERIC, Medline, CINAHL and EMBASE Additional electronic searches of: Psychinfo, Timelit, EBM reviews, SIGLE, and the Cochrane databases. Hand-searches of:Medical Education, Medical Teacher, Academic Medicine, Teaching and Learning in Medicine, Advances in Health Sciences Education, Journal of Educational Psychology. Authentic (real as opposed to simulated) human contact in a social or clinical context that enhances learning of health, illness and/or disease, and the role of the health professional. Early: What would traditionally have been regarded as the preclinical phase, usually the first 2 years. Inclusions: All empirical studies (verifiable, observational data) of early experience in the basic education of health professionals, whatever their design or methodology, including papers not in English. Evidence from other health care professions that could be applied to medicine was included. Not empirical; not early; post-basic; simulated rather than 'authentic' experience. Careful validation of selection processes. Coding by two reviewers onto an extensively modified version of the standard BEME coding sheet. Accumulation into an Access database. Secondary coding and synthesis of an interpretation. A total of 73 studies met the selection criteria and yielded 277 educational outcomes; 116 of those outcomes (from 38 studies) were rated strong and important enough to include in a narrative synthesis of results; 76% of those outcomes were from descriptive studies and 24% from comparative studies. Early experience motivated and satisfied students of the health professions and helped them acclimatize to clinical environments, develop professionally, interact with patients with more confidence and less stress, develop self-reflection and appraisal skill, and develop a professional identity. It strengthened their learning and made it more real and relevant to clinical practice. It helped students learn about the structure and function of the healthcare system, and about preventive care and the role of health professionals. It supported the learning of both biomedical and behavioural/social sciences and helped students acquire communication and basic clinical skills. There were outcomes for beneficiaries other than students, including teachers, patients, populations, organizations and specialties. Early experience increased recruitment to primary care/rural medical practice, though mainly in US studies which introduced it for that specific purpose as part of a complex intervention. Early experience helps medical students socialize to their chosen profession. It helps them acquire a range of subject matter and makes their learning more real and relevant. It has potential benefits for other stakeholders, notably teachers and patients. It can influence career choices.
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            10.1590/1807-57622016.0316
            S1414-32832016005023103

            http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

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