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      Genetic relationships among species of Contracaecum Railliet & Henry, 1912 and Phocascaris Höst, 1932 (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from pinnipeds inferred from mitochondrial cox2 sequences, and congruence with allozyme data.

      Parasite (Paris, France)

      EDP Sciences

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          The genetic relationships among 11 taxa, belonging to the genus Contracaecum (C. osculatum A, C. osculatum B, C. osculatum (s.s.), C. osculatum D, C. osculatum E, C. osculatum baicalensis, C. mirounga, C. radiatum, C. ogmorhini (s.s.), C. margolisi) and Phocascoris (Phocoscris cystophorae), parasites as adults of seals, were inferred from sequence analysis 1519 bp) of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (mtDNA cox2) gene. Phylogenetic analyses obtained from Parsimony (MP) and Neighbour-Joining (NJ) K2P distance values generated similar topologies, each well supported at major nodes. All analyses delineated two main clades: the first encompassing the parasites of the phocid seals, i.e. the C. osculatum species complex, C. osculatum boicolensis, C. mirounga and C. radiatum, with the latter two species forming a separate subclade; the second including the parasites of otarids, i.e. C. ogmorhini (s.s.) and C. margolisi. An overall high congruence between mtDNA inferred tree topologies and those produced from nuclear data sets (20 allozyme loci) was observed. Comparison of the phylogenetic hypothesis here produced for Controcaecum spp. plus Phocascaris with those currently available for their definitive hosts (pinnipeds) suggests parallelism between hosts and parasite phylogenetic tree topologies.

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