This review aims to evaluate the evidence for the existence of a direct nose-to-brain delivery route for nanoparticles administered to the nasal cavity and transported via the olfactory epithelium and/or via the trigeminal nerves directly to the CNS. This is relevant in the field of drug delivery as well as for new developments in nanotechnology. Experiments in animal models have shown that nano-sized drug delivery systems can enhance nose-to-brain delivery of drugs compared to equivalent drug solutions formulations. Protection of the drug from degradation and/or efflux back into the nasal cavity may partly be the reason for this effect of nanoparticles. It is uncertain, however, whether drug from the nanoparticles is being released in the nasal cavity or the nanoparticles carrying the drug are transported via the olfactory system or the trigeminal nerves into the CNS where the drug is released. Furthermore, toxicity of nanoparticulate drug delivery systems in the nasal cavity and/or in the CNS has not been extensively studied and needs to be considered carefully.