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      Endothelial dysfunction: a multifaceted disorder (The Wiggers Award Lecture).

      American Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology
      Animals, Atherosclerosis, etiology, pathology, physiopathology, Cardiovascular Diseases, Endothelin-1, physiology, Endothelium, Vascular, Hemostasis, Humans, Hypertension, complications, Inflammation, Nitric Oxide, Oxidative Stress, Rats, Rats, Inbred SHR, Reactive Oxygen Species

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          Abstract

          Endothelial cells synthesize and release various factors that regulate angiogenesis, inflammatory responses, hemostasis, as well as vascular tone and permeability. Endothelial dysfunction has been associated with a number of pathophysiological processes. Oxidative stress appears to be a common denominator underlying endothelial dysfunction in cardiovascular diseases. However, depending on the pathology, the vascular bed studied, the stimulant, and additional factors such as age, sex, salt intake, cholesterolemia, glycemia, and hyperhomocysteinemia, the mechanisms underlying the endothelial dysfunction can be markedly different. A reduced bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO), an alteration in the production of prostanoids, including prostacyclin, thromboxane A2, and/or isoprostanes, an impairment of endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization, as well as an increased release of endothelin-1, can individually or in association contribute to endothelial dysfunction. Therapeutic interventions do not necessarily restore a proper endothelial function and, when they do, may improve only part of these variables.

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