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      A quantitative systematic review of normal values for short-term heart rate variability in healthy adults.

      Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology

      Adult, Female, Heart Rate, physiology, Humans, Male, Reference Values, Young Adult

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          Abstract

          Heart rate variability (HRV) is a known risk factor for mortality in both healthy and patient populations. There are currently no normative data for short-term measures of HRV. A thorough review of short-term HRV data published since 1996 was therefore performed. Data from studies published after the 1996 Task Force report (i.e., between January 1997 and September 2008) and reporting short-term measures of HRV obtained in normally healthy individuals were collated and factors underlying discrepant values were identified. Forty-four studies met the pre-set inclusion criteria involving 21,438 participants. Values for short-term HRV measures from the literature were lower than Task Force norms. A degree of homogeneity for common measures of HRV in healthy adults was shown across studies. A number of studies demonstrate large interindividual variations (up to 260,000%), particularly for spectral measures. A number of methodological discrepancies underlined disparate values. These include a systematic failure within the literature (a) to recognize the importance of RR data recognition/editing procedures and (b) to question disparate HRV values observed in normally healthy individuals. A need for large-scale population studies and a review of the Task Force recommendations for short-term HRV that covers the full-age spectrum were identified. Data presented should be used to quantify reference ranges for short-term measures of HRV in healthy adult populations but should be undertaken with reference to methodological factors underlying disparate values. Recommendations for the measurement of HRV require updating to include current technologies. ©2010, The Authors. Journal compilation ©2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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          Most cited references 55

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          Impact of Reduced Heart Rate Variability on Risk for Cardiac Events: The Framingham Heart Study

          Although heart rate variability (HRV) is altered in a variety of pathological conditions, the association of reduced HRV with risk for new cardiac events has not been studied in a large community-based population. The first 2 hours of ambulatory ECG recordings obtained on subjects of the Framingham Heart Study who were free of clinically apparent coronary heart disease or congestive heart failure were reprocessed to assess HRV. Five frequency-domain measures and three time-domain measures were obtained. The associations between HRV measures and the incidence of new cardiac events (angina pectroris, myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease death, or congestive heart failure) were assessed with proportional hazards regression analyses. There were 2501 eligible subjects with a mean age of 53 years. During a mean follow-up of 3.5 years, cardiac events occurred in 58 subjects. After adjustment for age, sex, cigarette smoking, diabetes, left ventricular hypertrophy, and other relevant risk factors, all HRV measures except the ratio of low-frequency to high-frequency power were significantly associated with risk for a cardiac event (P = .0016 to .0496). A one-standard deviation decrement in the standard deviation of total normal RR intervals (natural log transformed) was associated with a hazard ratio of 1.47 for new cardiac events (95% confidence interval of 1.16 to 1.86). The estimation of HRV by ambulatory monitoring offers prognostic information beyond that provided by the evaluation of traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors.
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            Power spectrum analysis of heart rate fluctuation: a quantitative probe of beat-to-beat cardiovascular control

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              Heart rate variability: measurement and clinical utility.

              Electrocardiographic RR intervals fluctuate cyclically, modulated by ventilation, baroreflexes, and other genetic and environmental factors that are mediated through the autonomic nervous system. Short term electrocardiographic recordings (5 to 15 minutes), made under controlled conditions, e.g., lying supine or standing or tilted upright can elucidate physiologic, pharmacologic, or pathologic changes in autonomic nervous system function. Long-term, usually 24-hour recordings, can be used to assess autonomic nervous responses during normal daily activities in health, disease, and in response to therapeutic interventions, e.g., exercise or drugs. RR interval variability is useful for assessing risk of cardiovascular death or arrhythmic events, especially when combined with other tests, e.g., left ventricular ejection fraction or ventricular arrhythmias.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                20663071
                10.1111/j.1540-8159.2010.02841.x

                Chemistry

                Adult, Female, Heart Rate, physiology, Humans, Male, Reference Values, Young Adult

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