Blog
About

11
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: not found

      Differences in onset and abuse/dependence episodes between prescription opioids and heroin: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPMC
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Objectives

          To examine patterns of onset and abuse/dependence episodes of prescription opioid (PO) and heroin use disorders in a national sample of adults, and to explore differences by gender and substance abuse treatment status.

          Methods

          Analyses of data from the 2001–2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (N = 43,093).

          Results

          Of all respondents, 5% (n = 1815) reported a history of nonmedical PO use (NMPOU) and 0.3% (n = 150) a history of heroin use. Abuse was more prevalent than dependence among NMPOUs (PO abuse, 29%; dependence, 7%) and heroin users (heroin abuse, 63%; dependence, 28%). Heroin users reported a short mean interval from first use to onset of abuse (1.5 years) or dependence (2.0 years), and a lengthy mean duration for the longest episode of abuse (66 months) or dependence (59 months); the corresponding mean estimates for PO abuse and dependence among NMPOUs were 2.6 and 2.9 years, respectively, and 31 and 49 months, respectively. The mean number of years from first use to remission from the most recent episode was 6.9 years for PO abuse and 8.1 years for dependence; the mean number of years from first heroin use to remission from the most recent episode was 8.5 years for heroin abuse and 9.7 years for dependence. Most individuals with PO or heroin use disorders were remitted from the most recent episode. Treated individuals, whether their problem was heroin or POs, tended to have a longer mean duration of an episode than untreated individuals.

          Conclusion

          Periodic remissions from opioid or heroin abuse or dependence episodes occur commonly but take a long time. Timely and effective use of treatment services are needed to mitigate the many adverse consequences from opioid/heroin abuse and dependence.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 35

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: not found
          • Article: not found

          Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders.

            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Prevalence and co-occurrence of substance use disorders and independent mood and anxiety disorders: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions.

            Uncertainties exist about the prevalence and comorbidity of substance use disorders and independent mood and anxiety disorders. To present nationally representative data on the prevalence and comorbidity of DSM-IV alcohol and drug use disorders and independent mood and anxiety disorders (including only those that are not substance induced and that are not due to a general medical condition). Face-to-face survey. The United States. Household and group quarters' residents. Prevalence and associations of substance use disorders and independent mood and anxiety disorders. The prevalences of 12-month DSM-IV independent mood and anxiety disorders in the US population were 9.21% (95% confidence interval [CI], 8.78%-9.64%) and 11.08% (95% CI, 10.43%-11.73%), respectively. The rate of substance use disorders was 9.35% (95% CI, 8.86%-9.84%). Only a few individuals with mood or anxiety disorders were classified as having only substance-induced disorders. Associations between most substance use disorders and independent mood and anxiety disorders were positive and significant (P<.05). Substance use disorders and mood and anxiety disorders that develop independently of intoxication and withdrawal are among the most prevalent psychiatric disorders in the United States. Associations between most substance use disorders and independent mood and anxiety disorders were overwhelmingly positive and significant, suggesting that treatment for a comorbid mood or anxiety disorder should not be withheld from individuals with substance use disorders.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              The Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-IV (AUDADIS-IV): reliability of alcohol consumption, tobacco use, family history of depression and psychiatric diagnostic modules in a general population sample.

              the purpose of this study was to assess the test-retest reliability of newly introduced or revised modules of the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-IV (AUDADIS-IV), including alcohol consumption, tobacco use, family history of depression, and selected DSM-IV axis I and II psychiatric disorders. kappa and intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated for the AUDADIS-IV modules using a test-retest design among a total of 2657 respondents, in subsets of approximately 400, randomly drawn from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). reliabilities for alcohol consumption, tobacco use and family history of major depression measures were good to excellent, while reliabilities for selected DSM-IV axis I and II disorders were fair to good. The reliabilities of dimensional symptom scales of DSM-IV axis I and axis II disorders exceeded those of their dichotomous diagnostic counterparts and were generally in the good to excellent range. the high reliability of alcohol consumption, tobacco use, family history of depression and psychiatric disorder modules found in this study suggests that the AUDADIS-IV can be a useful tool in various research settings, particularly in studies of the general population, the target population for which it was designed.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University School of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA
                [2 ]Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania and Treatment Research Institute, Philadelphia, PA, USA
                [3 ]Social Science Research Institute, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Li-Tzy Wu, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University School of Medicine, Box 3419, Durham, NC 27710, USA, Tel +1 919 668 6067, Email litzy.wu@ 123456duke.edu
                Journal
                Subst Abuse Rehabil
                Subst Abuse Rehabil
                Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation
                Dove Medical Press
                1179-8467
                2011
                03 May 2011
                : 2
                : 77-88
                21686045 3114372 10.2147/SAR.S18969 sar-2-077
                © 2011 Wu et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd

                This is an Open Access article which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Original Research

                Comments

                Comment on this article