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      Increase in signal-to-noise ratio of > 10,000 times in liquid-state NMR.

      Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

      Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, methods, Urea, analysis

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          Abstract

          A method for obtaining strongly polarized nuclear spins in solution has been developed. The method uses low temperature, high magnetic field, and dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) to strongly polarize nuclear spins in the solid state. The solid sample is subsequently dissolved rapidly in a suitable solvent to create a solution of molecules with hyperpolarized nuclear spins. The polarization is performed in a DNP polarizer, consisting of a super-conducting magnet (3.35 T) and a liquid-helium cooled sample space. The sample is irradiated with microwaves at approximately 94 GHz. Subsequent to polarization, the sample is dissolved by an injection system inside the DNP magnet. The dissolution process effectively preserves the nuclear polarization. The resulting hyperpolarized liquid sample can be transferred to a high-resolution NMR spectrometer, where an enhanced NMR signal can be acquired, or it may be used as an agent for in vivo imaging or spectroscopy. In this article we describe the use of the method on aqueous solutions of [13C]urea. Polarizations of 37% for 13C and 7.8% for 15N, respectively, were obtained after the dissolution. These polarizations correspond to an enhancement of 44,400 for 13C and 23,500 for 15N, respectively, compared with thermal equilibrium at 9.4 T and room temperature. The method can be used generally for signal enhancement and reduction of measurement time in liquid-state NMR and opens up for a variety of in vitro and in vivo applications of DNP-enhanced NMR.

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          Most cited references 10

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          Principles of dynamic nuclear polarisation

           A Abragam,  M Goldman (1978)
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            Nuclear magnetic resonance of laser-polarized noble gases in molecules, materials, and organisms.

             B Goodson (2002)
            The sensitivity of conventional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques is fundamentally limited by the ordinarily low spin polarization achievable in even the strongest NMR magnets. However, by transferring angular momentum from laser light to electronic and nuclear spins, optical pumping methods can increase the nuclear spin polarization of noble gases by several orders of magnitude, thereby greatly enhancing their NMR sensitivity. This review describes the principles and magnetic resonance applications of laser-polarized noble gases. The enormous sensitivity enhancement afforded by optical pumping can be exploited to permit a variety of novel NMR experiments across numerous disciplines. Many such experiments are reviewed, including the void-space imaging of organisms and materials, NMR and MRI of living tissues, probing structure and dynamics of molecules in solution and on surfaces, NMR sensitivity enhancement via polarization transfer, and low-field NMR and MRI. (c) 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).
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              Polarization-enhanced NMR spectroscopy of biomolecules in frozen solution.

              Large dynamic nuclear polarization signal enhancements (up to a factor of 100) were obtained in the solid-state magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of arginine and the protein T4 lysozyme in frozen glycerol-water solutions with the use of dynamic nuclear polarization. Polarization was transferred from the unpaired electrons of nitroxide free radicals to nuclear spins through microwave irradiation near the electron paramagnetic resonance frequency. This approach may be a generally applicable signal enhancement scheme for the high-resolution solid-state NMR spectroscopy of biomolecules.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                12930897
                193532
                10.1073/pnas.1733835100

                Chemistry

                Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, methods, Urea, analysis

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