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      Effect of constipation on dosimetry after permanent seed brachytherapy for prostate cancer.

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          A major concern in prostate brachytherapy is rectal toxicity, which mainly depends on the dose and volume of rectum involved by radiation. We hypothesize that the rectal distension, as produced by constipation, influences the dosimetric parameters of the rectum and other pelvic organs.

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          Most cited references 17

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          Increased risk of biochemical and local failure in patients with distended rectum on the planning CT for prostate cancer radiotherapy.

          To retrospectively test the hypothesis that rectal distension on the planning computed tomography (CT) scan is associated with an increased risk of biochemical and local failure among patients irradiated for prostate carcinoma when a daily repositioning technique based on direct prostate-organ localization is not used. This study included 127 patients who received definitive three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer to a total dose of 78 Gy at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. Rectal distension was assessed by calculation of the average cross-sectional rectal area (CSA; defined as the rectal volume divided by length) and measuring three rectal diameters on the planning CT. The impact of rectal distension on biochemical control, 2-year prostate biopsy results, and incidence of Grade 2 or greater late rectal bleeding was assessed. The incidence of biochemical failure was significantly higher among patients with distended rectums (CSA >11.2 cm(2)) on the planning CT scan (p = 0.0009, log-rank test). Multivariate analysis indicates that rectal distension and high-risk disease are independent risk factors for biochemical failure, with hazard ratios of 3.89 (95% C.I. 1.58 to 9.56, p = 0.003) and 2.45 (95% C.I. 1.18 to 5.08, p = 0.016), respectively. The probability of residual tumor without evidence of radiation treatment (as scored by the pathologist) increased significantly with rectal distension (p = 0.010, logistic analysis), and a lower incidence of Grade 2 or greater late rectal bleeding within 2 years was simultaneously observed with higher CSA values (p = 0.031, logistic analysis). We found strong evidence that rectal distension on the treatment-planning CT scan decreased the probability of biochemical control, local control, and rectal toxicity in patients who were treated without daily image-guided prostate localization, presumably because of geographic misses. Therefore, an empty rectum is warranted at the time of simulation. These results also emphasize the need for image-guided radiotherapy to improve local control in irradiating prostate cancer.
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            Late rectal toxicity: dose-volume effects of conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer.

            To identify dosimetric, anatomic, and clinical factors that correlate with late rectal toxicity after three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) for prostate cancer. We retrospectively analyzed the dose-volume histograms and clinical records of 163 Stage T1b-T3c prostate cancer patients treated between 1992 and 1999 with 3D-CRT, to a total isocenter dose of 74-78 Gy at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. The median follow-up was 62 months (range 24-102). All late rectal complications were scored using modified Radiation Therapy Oncology Group and Late Effects Normal Tissue Task Force criteria. The 6-year toxicity rate was assessed using Kaplan-Meier analysis and the log-rank test. A univariate proportional hazards regression model was used to test the correlation between Grade 2 or higher toxicity and the dosimetric, anatomic, and clinical factors. In a multivariate regression model, clinical factors were added to the dosimetric and anatomic variables to determine whether they significantly altered the risk of developing late toxicity. At 6 years, the rate of developing Grade 2 or higher late rectal toxicity was 25%. A significant volume effect was observed at rectal doses of 60, 70, 75.6, and 78 Gy, and the risk of developing rectal complications increased exponentially as greater volumes were irradiated. Although the percentage of rectal volume treated correlated significantly with the incidence of rectal complications at all dose levels (p <0.0001 for all comparisons), the absolute rectal volume appeared to be a factor only at the higher doses of 70, 75.6, and 78 Gy (p = 0.0514, 0.0016, and 0.0021, respectively). The following variables also correlated with toxicity on the univariate analysis: maximal dose to the clinical target volume, maximal dose to rectum, maximal dose to the rectum as a percentage of the prescribed dose, and maximal dose delivered to 10 cm(3) of the rectum. Of the clinical variables tested, only a history of hemorrhoids correlated with rectal toxicity (p = 0.003). Multivariate analysis showed that the addition of hemorrhoids increased the risk of toxicity for each dosimetric variable found to be significant on univariate analysis (p <0.05 for all comparisons). Dose-volume histogram analyses clearly indicated a volume effect on the probability of developing late rectal complications. Therefore, dose escalation may be safely achieved by adherence to dose-volume histogram constraints during treatment planning and organ localization at the time of treatment to ensure consistent patient setup.
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              Conformal arc radiotherapy for prostate cancer: increased biochemical failure in patients with distended rectum on the planning computed tomogram despite image guidance by implanted markers.

              To evaluate the effect of rectal distention on the planning computed tomogram on freedom from biochemical failure (FFBF) of prostate cancer patients treated with image-guided conformal arc radiotherapy. The outcomes of 238 patients with T1-T3N0M0 tumors were analyzed, with a median follow-up of 53 months (range, 24-93 months). In 213 patients, daily co-registration of X-rays and digitally reconstructed radiographs was used for positioning, whereas in 25 patients positioning was done using direct prostate visualization with implanted markers. The rectal average cross-sectional area was determined on the planning computed tomogram. The 5-year freedom from Grade 3 to 4 late gastrointestinal and urinary side effect, according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria, was 100% and 99.4% respectively. The 5-year FFBF was 88.4%. On multivariate analysis the following variables were significantly related to worse FFBF: risk group according to the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (high- to very high risk vs. intermediate- to low-risk), dose (70 vs. 78 Gy), average cross-sectional area (> or =16 vs. <16 cm(2)) and, unexpectedly, the use of implanted markers as opposed to bony structures for patient positioning. In retrospect, the margins around the clinical target volume appeared to be inadequate in the cases in which markers were used. Overall, the outcome of patients treated with image-guided conformal arc radiotherapy is excellent. We were able to confirm the negative prognostic impact of a distended rectum on the planning computed tomogram described by others. The study illustrates the potential danger of image guidance techniques as to margin reduction around the clinical target volume.

                Author and article information

                J Contemp Brachytherapy
                Journal of contemporary brachytherapy
                Termedia Sp. z.o.o.
                Aug 2015
                : 7
                : 4
                [1 ] Radiation Oncology Department, Hospital Universitario de Canarias ; Department of Physical Medicine and Pharmacology, La Laguna University.
                [2 ] Radiation Oncology Department, Hospital Universitario de Canarias.
                [3 ] Medical Physics Department, Hospital Universitario de Canarias, Canary Islands, Spain.


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