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      Paraeutypella guizhouensis gen. et sp. nov. and Diatrypella longiasca sp. nov. (Diatrypaceae) from China

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      Biodiversity Data Journal

      Pensoft Publishers

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          Abstract

          In this study, we introduce a novel genus Paraeutypella of the family Diatrypaceae, comprising three species viz. Paraeutypella guizhouensis sp. nov. and P. citricola (basionym: Eutypella citricola) and P. vitis (basionym: Sphaeria vitis). Diatrypella longiasca sp. nov. is also introduced, which forms a distinct clade in Diatrypella sensu stricto. The discovery of this new genus will contribute to expand the knowledge and taxonomic framework of Diatrypaceae (Xylariales).Generic delimitations in Diatrypaceae, Xylariales, are unsettled because the phylogeny has yet to be resolved using extensive taxon sampling and sequencing of ex-type cultures. During an investigation of xylarialean fungi, we collected eutypella-like taxon which is distinct from Eutypella s. str. in our phylogenetic analyses (ITS and β-tubulin) thus, introduced as Paraeutypella guizhouensis gen. et sp. nov.. Paraeutypella is characterized by having 4–25 perithecia in a stroma each with 3–6 sulcate, long ostiolar necks. Paraeutypella citricola comb. nov. (basionym: Eutypella citricola) is introduced on Acer sp. from China. Diatrypella longiasca sp. nov. is introduced as a new species in Diatrypella s. str. which has 2–5 ascomata per stromata and long ascospores, unusual when compared to other Diatrypella species and distinct phylogenetically.

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          RAxML version 8: a tool for phylogenetic analysis and post-analysis of large phylogenies

          Motivation: Phylogenies are increasingly used in all fields of medical and biological research. Moreover, because of the next-generation sequencing revolution, datasets used for conducting phylogenetic analyses grow at an unprecedented pace. RAxML (Randomized Axelerated Maximum Likelihood) is a popular program for phylogenetic analyses of large datasets under maximum likelihood. Since the last RAxML paper in 2006, it has been continuously maintained and extended to accommodate the increasingly growing input datasets and to serve the needs of the user community. Results: I present some of the most notable new features and extensions of RAxML, such as a substantial extension of substitution models and supported data types, the introduction of SSE3, AVX and AVX2 vector intrinsics, techniques for reducing the memory requirements of the code and a plethora of operations for conducting post-analyses on sets of trees. In addition, an up-to-date 50-page user manual covering all new RAxML options is available. Availability and implementation: The code is available under GNU GPL at https://github.com/stamatak/standard-RAxML. Contact: alexandros.stamatakis@h-its.org Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
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            MAFFT online service: multiple sequence alignment, interactive sequence choice and visualization

            Abstract This article describes several features in the MAFFT online service for multiple sequence alignment (MSA). As a result of recent advances in sequencing technologies, huge numbers of biological sequences are available and the need for MSAs with large numbers of sequences is increasing. To extract biologically relevant information from such data, sophistication of algorithms is necessary but not sufficient. Intuitive and interactive tools for experimental biologists to semiautomatically handle large data are becoming important. We are working on development of MAFFT toward these two directions. Here, we explain (i) the Web interface for recently developed options for large data and (ii) interactive usage to refine sequence data sets and MSAs.
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              Two divergent intragenomic rDNA ITS2 types within a monophyletic lineage of the fungus Fusarium are nonorthologous.

              The evolutionary history of the phytopathogenic Gibberella fujikuroi complex of Fusarium and related species was investigated by cladistic analysis of DNA sequences obtained from multiple unlinked loci. Gene phylogenies inferred from the mitochondrial small subunit (mtSSU) rDNA, nuclear 28S rDNA, and beta-tubulin gene were generally concordant, providing strong support for a fully resolved phylogeny of all biological and most morphological species. Discordance of the nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) gene tree is due to paralogous or xenologous ITS2 sequences. PCR and sequence analysis demonstrated that every strain of the ingroup species tested possesses two highly divergent nonorthologous ITS2 types designated type I and type II. Only the major ITS2 type, however, is discernable when PCR products are amplified and sequenced directly with conserved primers. The minor ITS2 type was recovered using ITS2 type-specific PCR primers. Distribution of the major ITS2 type within the species lineages exhibits a homoplastic pattern of evolution, thus obscuring true phylogenetic relationships. The results suggest that the ancestral ITS2 types may have arisen following an ancient interspecific hybridization or gene duplication which occurred prior to the evolutionary radiation of the Gibberella fujikuroi complex and related species of Fusarium. The results also indicate that current morphological-based taxonomic schemes for these fungi are unnatural and a new classification is required.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (View ORCID Profile)
                Journal
                Biodiversity Data Journal
                BDJ
                Pensoft Publishers
                1314-2828
                1314-2836
                March 26 2021
                March 26 2021
                : 9
                Article
                10.3897/BDJ.9.e63864
                © 2021

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