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      Adrenomedullin Gene Transcription Is Decreased in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Patients with IgA Nephropathy

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          Abstract

          We measured mRNA levels of adrenomedullin (AM), C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of patients with IgA nephropathy. To evaluate these mRNA levels, we employed a real-time quantitative PCR method which was performed using a hybridization probe labeled with two fluorescence dyes. This strategy was found to afford the standard curves with a high correlation, suggesting that this method is useful for evaluations of mRNA levels. By this method, levels of AM, CNP, VEGF, IL-1β and IL-6 mRNA in PBMC of 49 IgA nephropathy patients and 35 healthy volunteers were evaluated. Among the mRNAs examined, AM mRNA levels were significantly lower in severe-grade than in mild-grade IgA nephropathy patients. Furthermore, AM mRNA levels correlated with CNP mRNA levels in PBMC of patients with IgA nephropathy, and each peptide generated from these mRNAs has antiproliferative effects on mesangial cells. These data indicate that gene expression of AM in PBMC is regulated according to the pathophysiological states of IgA nephropathy and that decreased AM production may contribute to the progression of IgA nephropathy.

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          Most cited references 6

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          Cloning and characterization of cDNA encoding a precursor for human adrenomedullin.

          Adrenomedullin is a novel hypotensive peptide recently isolated from human pheochromocytoma. Since a high concentration of immunoreactive adrenomedullin was found in pheochromocytoma tissue, the cDNA library of pheochromocytoma was constructed, and the cDNA clone encoding an adrenomedullin precursor was isolated and sequenced. The precursor for human adrenomedullin (human preproadrenomedullin) is 185 amino acids in length, including an adrenomedullin sequence. Proadrenomedullin (proAM) contains a unique twenty amino acid sequence followed by Gly-Lys-Arg in the N-terminal region. It is possible that a novel 20 residues peptide, termed "proadrenomedullin N-terminal 20 peptide" (proAM-N20) whose carboxy terminus may be Arg-NH2, is processed from proadrenomedullin. By RNA blot analysis, human adrenomedullin mRNA was found to be highly expressed in several tissues including adrenal medulla, ventricle, lung and kidney as well as pheochromocytoma.
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            Production of adrenomedullin in macrophage cell line and peritoneal macrophage.

            We demonstrate that adrenomedullin (AM) is produced and secreted from cultured murine monocyte/macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7) as well as mouse peritoneal macrophage. Immunoreactive (IR) AM secreted from RAW 264.7 cells was chromatographically identified to be native AM. To elucidate the regulation mechanism of AM production in macrophage, we examined the effects of various substances inducing differentiation or activation of monocyte/macrophage. Phorbol ester (TPA), retinoic acid (RA), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) increased AM production 1.5-7-fold in RAW 264.7 cells in a dose- as well as time-dependent manner. By LPS stimulation, the AM mRNA level in RAW 264.7 cells was augmented up to 7-fold after 14 h incubation. RA exerted a synergistic effect when administered with TPA, LPS, or IFN-gamma, whereas IFN-gamma completely suppressed AM production in RAW 264.7 cells stimulated with LPS. Dexamethasone, hydrocortisone, estradiol, and transforming growth factor-beta dose-dependently suppressed AM production in RAW 264.7 cells. AM production was also investigated in mouse peritoneal macrophage. Primary mouse macrophage secreted IR-AM at a rate similar to that of RAW 264.7 cells, and its production was enhanced 9-fold by LPS stimulation. AM was found to increase basal secretion of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) from RAW 264.7 cells, whereas AM suppressed the secretion of TNF-alpha and interleukin-6 from that stimulated with LPS. Thus, macrophage should be recognized as one of the major sources of AM circulating in the blood. Especially in cases of sepsis and inflammation, AM production in macrophage is augmented, and the secreted AM is deduced to function as a modulator of cytokine production.
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              Adrenomedullin suppresses mitogenesis in rat mesangial cells via cAMP pathway.

              Adrenomedullin (ADM) is a vasoactive peptide that was recently localized in renal glomeruli. In the present study we explored whether ADM stimulates cAMP system in glomerular mesangial cells (MC) and whether it can via "negative-crosstalk" inhibit the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and thus suppress proliferation of MC. We found that ADM elicited accumulation of cAMP and in situ activation of protein kinase A (PKA) in cultured MC. Addition of 1 nM ADM to incubation media inhibited the proliferation in both quiescent MC and cells maximally stimulated by PDGF and also decreased the activation of MAPK induced by PDGF. These results indicate that ADM can suppress MC mitogenesis and suggest that it may function as an endogenous paracrine supressor of MC proliferation.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nephron
                Nephron
                S. Karger AG
                1660-8151
                2235-3186
                July 1 2000
                2000
                June 21 2000
                : 85
                : 3
                : 201-206
                Article
                10.1159/000045662
                © 2000

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