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      Complications of Spinal Cord Stimulation and Peripheral Nerve Stimulation Techniques: A Review of the Literature.

      , ,

      Pain medicine (Malden, Mass.)

      Oxford University Press (OUP)

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          Abstract

          Spinal cord and peripheral neurostimulation techniques have been practiced since 1967 for the relief of pain, and some techniques are also used for improvement in organ function. Neuromodulation has recognized complications, although very rarely do these cause long-term morbidity. The aim of this article is to present a review of complications observed in patients treated with neurostimulation techniques.

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          Most cited references 40

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          Post-dural puncture headache: pathogenesis, prevention and treatment.

          Spinal anaesthesia developed in the late 1800s with the work of Wynter, Quincke and Corning. However, it was the German surgeon, Karl August Bier in 1898, who probably gave the first spinal anaesthetic. Bier also gained first-hand experience of the disabling headache related to dural puncture. He correctly surmised that the headache was related to excessive loss of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). In the last 50 yr, the development of fine-gauge spinal needles and needle tip modification, has enabled a significant reduction in the incidence of post-dural puncture headache. Though it is clear that reducing the size of the dural perforation reduces the loss of CSF, there are many areas regarding the pathogenesis, treatment and prevention of post-dural puncture headache that remain contentious. How does the microscopic pattern of collagen alignment in the spinal dura affect the dimensions of the dural perforation? How do needle design, size and orientation influence leakage of CSF through the dural perforation? Can pharmacological methods reduce the symptoms of post-dural puncture headache? By which mechanism does the epidural blood patch cure headache? Is there a role for the prophylactic epidural blood patch? Do epidural saline, dextran, opioids and tissue glues reduce the rate of CSF loss? This review considers these contentious aspects of post-dural puncture headache.
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            Is Open Access

            Sustained Effectiveness of 10 kHz High-Frequency Spinal Cord Stimulation for Patients with Chronic, Low Back Pain: 24-Month Results of a Prospective Multicenter Study

            Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term efficacy and safety of paresthesia-free high-frequency spinal cord stimulation (HF10 SCS) for the treatment of chronic, intractable pain of the low back and legs. Design Prospective, multicenter, observational study. Method Patients with significant chronic low back pain underwent implantation of a spinal cord stimulator capable of HF10 SCS. Patients' pain ratings, disability, sleep disturbances, opioid use, satisfaction, and adverse events were assessed for 24 months. Results After a trial period, 88% (72 of 82) of patients reported a significant improvement in pain scores and underwent the permanent implantation of the system. Ninety percent (65 of 72) of patients attended a 24-month follow-up visit. Mean back pain was reduced from 8.4 ± 0.1 at baseline to 3.3 ± 0.3 at 24 months (P < 0.001), and mean leg pain from 5.4 ± 0.4 to 2.3 ± 0.3 (P < 0.001). Concomitantly to the pain relief, there were significant decreases in opioid use, Oswestry Disability Index score, and sleep disturbances. Patients' satisfaction and recommendation ratings were high. Adverse Events were similar in type and frequency to those observed with traditional SCS systems. Conclusions In patients with chronic low back pain, HF10 SCS resulted in clinically significant and sustained back and leg pain relief, functional and sleep improvements, opioid use reduction, and high patient satisfaction. These results support the long-term safety and sustained efficacy of HF10 SCS.
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              Spinal cord stimulation in treatment of chronic benign pain: challenges in treatment planning and present status, a 22-year experience.

              To present an in-depth analysis of clinical predictors of outcome including age, sex, etiology of pain, type of electrodes used, duration of pain, duration of treatment, development of tolerance, employment status, activities of daily living, psychological status, and quality of life. Suggestions for treatment of low back pain with a predominant axial component are addressed. We analyzed the complications and proposed remedial measures to improve the effectiveness of this modality. Study group consists of 410 patients (252 men, 58 women) with a mean age of 54 years and a mean follow-up period of 97.6 months. All patients were gated through a multidisciplinary pain clinic. The study was conducted over 22 years. The early success rate was 80% (328 patients), whereas the long-term success rate of internalized patients was 74.1% (243 patients) after the mean follow-up period of 97.6 months. Hardware-related complications included displaced or fractured electrodes, infection, and hardware malfunction. Etiologies demonstrating efficacy included failed back syndrome, peripheral vascular disease, angina pain, complex regional pain syndrome I and II, peripheral neuropathy, lower limb pain caused by multiple sclerosis. Age, sex, laterality of pain or number of surgeries before implant did not play a role in predicting outcome. The percentage of pain relief was inversely related to the time interval between pain onset and time of implantation. Radicular pain with axial component responded better to dual Pisces electrode or Specify-Lead implantation. Spinal cord stimulation can provide significant long-term pain relief with improved quality of life and employment. Results of this study will be effective in better defining prognostic factors and reducing complications leading to higher success rates with spinal cord stimulation.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Pain Med
                Pain medicine (Malden, Mass.)
                Oxford University Press (OUP)
                1526-4637
                1526-2375
                Feb 2016
                : 17
                : 2
                Article
                pnv025
                10.1093/pm/pnv025
                26814260

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