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      Choosing wisely in pediatric hospital medicine: Five opportunities for improved healthcare value

      Journal of Hospital Medicine

      Wiley

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          Most cited references 40

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          Bronchiolitis-associated hospitalizations among US children, 1980-1996.

          Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes more lower respiratory tract infections, often manifested as bronchiolitis, among young children than any other pathogen. Few national estimates exist of the hospitalizations attributable to RSV, and recent advances in prophylaxis warrant an update of these estimates. To describe rates of bronchiolitis-associated hospitalizations and to estimate current hospitalizations associated with RSV infection. Descriptive analysis of US National Hospital Discharge Survey data from 1980 through 1996. Children younger than 5 years who were hospitalized in short-stay, non-federal hospitals for bronchiolitis. Bronchiolitis-associated hospitalization rates by age and year. During the 17-year study period, an estimated 1.65 million hospitalizations for bronchiolitis occurred among children younger than 5 years, accounting for 7.0 million inpatient days. Fifty-seven percent of these hospitalizations occurred among children younger than 6 months and 81 % among those younger than 1 year. Among children younger than 1 year, annual bronchiolitis hospitalization rates increased 2.4-fold, from 12.9 per 1000 in 1980 to 31.2 per 1000 in 1996. During 1988-1996, infant hospitalization rates for bronchiolitis increased significantly (P for trend <.001), while hospitalization rates for lower respiratory tract diseases excluding bronchiolitis did not vary significantly (P for trend = .20). The proportion of hospitalizations for lower respiratory tract illnesses among children younger than 1 year associated with bronchiolitis increased from 22.2% in 1980 to 47.4% in 1996; among total hospitalizations, this proportion increased from 5.4% to 16.4%. Averaging bronchiolitis hospitalizations during 1994-1996 and assuming that RSV was the etiologic agent in 50% to 80% of November through April hospitalizations, an estimated 51, 240 to 81, 985 annual bronchiolitis hospitalizations among children younger than 1 year were related to RSV infection. During 1980-1996, rates of hospitalization of infants with bronchiolitis increased substantially, as did the proportion of total and lower respiratory tract hospitalizations associated with bronchiolitis. Annual bronchiolitis hospitalizations associated with RSV infection among infants may be greater than previous estimates for RSV bronchiolitis and pneumonia hospitalizations combined.
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            Diagnosis and management of bronchiolitis.

              (2006)
            Bronchiolitis is a disorder most commonly caused in infants by viral lower respiratory tract infection. It is the most common lower respiratory infection in this age group. It is characterized by acute inflammation, edema, and necrosis of epithelial cells lining small airways, increased mucus production, and bronchospasm. The American Academy of Pediatrics convened a committee composed of primary care physicians and specialists in the fields of pulmonology, infectious disease, emergency medicine, epidemiology, and medical informatics. The committee partnered with the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and the RTI International-University of North Carolina Evidence-Based Practice Center to develop a comprehensive review of the evidence-based literature related to the diagnosis, management, and prevention of bronchiolitis. The resulting evidence report and other sources of data were used to formulate clinical practice guideline recommendations. This guideline addresses the diagnosis of bronchiolitis as well as various therapeutic interventions including bronchodilators, corticosteroids, antiviral and antibacterial agents, hydration, chest physiotherapy, and oxygen. Recommendations are made for prevention of respiratory syncytial virus infection with palivizumab and the control of nosocomial spread of infection. Decisions were made on the basis of a systematic grading of the quality of evidence and strength of recommendation. The clinical practice guideline underwent comprehensive peer review before it was approved by the American Academy of Pediatrics. This clinical practice guideline is not intended as a sole source of guidance in the management of children with bronchiolitis. Rather, it is intended to assist clinicians in decision-making. It is not intended to replace clinical judgment or establish a protocol for the care of all children with this condition. These recommendations may not provide the only appropriate approach to the management of children with bronchiolitis.
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              Bronchiolitis-associated mortality and estimates of respiratory syncytial virus-associated deaths among US children, 1979-1997.

              A 1985 estimate that 4500 respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-associated deaths occur annually among US children has not been updated using nationally representative data. Thus, 1979-1997 multiple cause-of-death records for children <5 years old listing bronchiolitis, pneumonia, or any respiratory tract disease were examined. Deaths among children associated with any respiratory disease declined from 4631 in 1979 to 2502 in 1997. During the 19-year study period, 1806 bronchiolitis-associated deaths occurred (annual mean, 95 deaths; range, 66-127 deaths). Of these deaths, 1435 (79%) occurred among infants <1 year old. Congenital heart disease, lung disease, or prematurity was listed in death records of 179 (9.9%), 99 (5.5%), and 76 (4.2%) children dying with bronchiolitis, respectively. By applying published proportions of children hospitalized for bronchiolitis or pneumonia who were RSV-infected to bronchiolitis and pneumonia deaths, it was estimated that < or =510 RSV-associated deaths occurred annually during the study period, fewer than previously estimated.
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                Journal
                10.1002/jhm.2064

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1

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