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      Cancer genes and the pathways they control.

      Nature medicine
      Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein, metabolism, Apoptosis, genetics, physiology, DNA Repair, DNA-Binding Proteins, Genes, Tumor Suppressor, Humans, Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit, Mutation, Neoplasms, Nuclear Proteins, Oncogenes, Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases, Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases, Retinoblastoma Protein, Signal Transduction, Smad Proteins, Trans-Activators, Transcription Factors, Tumor Suppressor Protein p53

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          The revolution in cancer research can be summed up in a single sentence: cancer is, in essence, a genetic disease. In the last decade, many important genes responsible for the genesis of various cancers have been discovered, their mutations precisely identified, and the pathways through which they act characterized. The purposes of this review are to highlight examples of progress in these areas, indicate where knowledge is scarce and point out fertile grounds for future investigation.

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