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      Paraventricular Nucleus:A Site for the Integration of Neuroendocrine and Autonomic Mechanisms

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          Abstract

          We have summarized here recent evidence that clarifies the cellular organization and connections of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH) in the rat. The nucleus consists of a magnocellular division, with three distinct parts, and a parvocellular division with five distinct parts. Most neurons in the magnocellular division contain either oxytocin or vasopressin, and project to the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland. Separate cell populations centered in the parvocellular division give rise to projections to the median eminence, or to the brain stem and spinal cord including the intermediolateral column; some cells project both to the dorsal vagal complex and to the spinal cord. Cells with long descending projections may contain either oxytocin, vasopressin, somatostatin, or dopamine, although the biochemical specificity of most such neurons has not been determined. Noradrenergic fibers are found preferentially within those parts of the magnocellular division that are predominantly vasopressinergic. The parvocellular division is innervated by adrenergic as well as noradrenergic fibers from the brain stem, and by fibers from the dorsal vagal complex and the parabrachial nucleus. The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and adjacent parts of the hypothalamus also innervate the PVH. The evidence indicates that subpopulations of neurons in the PVH are directly related to autonomic and neuroendocrine effector mechanisms, and suggests that the nucleus plays an important role in the regulation of visceral responses in the periphery and in the CNS itself.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          NEN
          Neuroendocrinology
          10.1159/issn.0028-3835
          Neuroendocrinology
          S. Karger AG
          0028-3835
          1423-0194
          1980
          1980
          26 March 2008
          : 31
          : 6
          : 410-417
          Affiliations
          The Salk Institute, La Jolla, Calif., USA
          Article
          123111 Neuroendocrinology 1980;31:410–417
          10.1159/000123111
          6109264
          © 1980 S. Karger AG, Basel

          Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

          Page count
          Pages: 8
          Categories
          Progress in Neuroendocrinology

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