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      Closed-loop brain training: the science of neurofeedback

      Nature reviews. Neuroscience

      Springer Nature

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          Most cited references 162

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          Electrophysiological signatures of resting state networks in the human brain.

          Functional neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies have documented a dynamic baseline of intrinsic (not stimulus- or task-evoked) brain activity during resting wakefulness. This baseline is characterized by slow (<0.1 Hz) fluctuations of functional imaging signals that are topographically organized in discrete brain networks, and by much faster (1-80 Hz) electrical oscillations. To investigate the relationship between hemodynamic and electrical oscillations, we have adopted a completely data-driven approach that combines information from simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Using independent component analysis on the fMRI data, we identified six widely distributed resting state networks. The blood oxygenation level-dependent signal fluctuations associated with each network were correlated with the EEG power variations of delta, theta, alpha, beta, and gamma rhythms. Each functional network was characterized by a specific electrophysiological signature that involved the combination of different brain rhythms. Moreover, the joint EEG/fMRI analysis afforded a finer physiological fractionation of brain networks in the resting human brain. This result supports for the first time in humans the coalescence of several brain rhythms within large-scale brain networks as suggested by biophysical studies.
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            Getting formal with dopamine and reward.

            Recent neurophysiological studies reveal that neurons in certain brain structures carry specific signals about past and future rewards. Dopamine neurons display a short-latency, phasic reward signal indicating the difference between actual and predicted rewards. The signal is useful for enhancing neuronal processing and learning behavioral reactions. It is distinctly different from dopamine's tonic enabling of numerous behavioral processes. Neurons in the striatum, frontal cortex, and amygdala also process reward information but provide more differentiated information for identifying and anticipating rewards and organizing goal-directed behavior. The different reward signals have complementary functions, and the optimal use of rewards in voluntary behavior would benefit from interactions between the signals. Addictive psychostimulant drugs may exert their action by amplifying the dopamine reward signal.
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              Executive function and the frontal lobes: a meta-analytic review.

              Currently, there is debate among scholars regarding how to operationalize and measure executive functions. These functions generally are referred to as "supervisory" cognitive processes because they involve higher level organization and execution of complex thoughts and behavior. Although conceptualizations vary regarding what mental processes actually constitute the "executive function" construct, there has been a historical linkage of these "higher-level" processes with the frontal lobes. In fact, many investigators have used the term "frontal functions" synonymously with "executive functions" despite evidence that contradicts this synonymous usage. The current review provides a critical analysis of lesion and neuroimaging studies using three popular executive function measures (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Phonemic Verbal Fluency, and Stroop Color Word Interference Test) in order to examine the validity of the executive function construct in terms of its relation to activation and damage to the frontal lobes. Empirical lesion data are examined via meta-analysis procedures along with formula derivatives. Results reveal mixed evidence that does not support a one-to-one relationship between executive functions and frontal lobe activity. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications of construing the validity of these neuropsychological tests in anatomical, rather than cognitive and behavioral, terms.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                10.1038/nrn.2016.164

                http://www.springer.com/tdm

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