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      Roles for Intestinal Bacteria, Viruses, and Fungi in Pathogenesis of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases and Therapeutic Approaches.

      1 , 2
      Gastroenterology
      Elsevier BV
      Dysbiosis, Fecal Transplant, Personalized Therapy, Viruses

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          Abstract

          Intestinal microbiota are involved in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and pouchitis. We review the mechanisms by which these gut bacteria, fungi, and viruses mediate mucosal homeostasis via their composite genes (metagenome) and metabolic products (metabolome). We explain how alterations to their profiles and functions under conditions of dysbiosis contribute to inflammation and effector immune responses that mediate inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) in humans and enterocolitis in mice. It could be possible to engineer the intestinal environment by modifying the microbiota community structure or function to treat patients with IBD-either with individual agents, via dietary management, or as adjuncts to immunosuppressive drugs. We summarize the latest information on therapeutic use of fecal microbial transplantation and propose improved strategies to selectively normalize the dysbiotic microbiome in personalized approaches to treatment.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Gastroenterology
          Gastroenterology
          Elsevier BV
          1528-0012
          0016-5085
          Feb 2017
          : 152
          : 2
          Affiliations
          [1 ] Departments of Medicine, Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina. Electronic address: rbs@med.unc.edu.
          [2 ] Division of Gastroenterology, Perelman School of Medicine, the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Electronic address: gdwu@mail.med.upenn.edu.
          Article
          S0016-5085(16)35235-0
          10.1053/j.gastro.2016.10.012
          27769810
          3373b1b5-06c8-474a-944a-8e8e85ab64e8
          History

          Dysbiosis,Fecal Transplant,Personalized Therapy,Viruses
          Dysbiosis, Fecal Transplant, Personalized Therapy, Viruses

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