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      Circulating and Dietary Trans Fatty Acids and Incident Type 2 Diabetes in Older Adults: The Cardiovascular Health Study

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          Abstract

          OBJECTIVE

          To investigate the effects of trans fatty acids (TFAs) on type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) by specific TFA subtype or method of assessment.

          RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS

          In the Cardiovascular Health Study, plasma phospholipid trans ( t)-16:1n9, t-18:1, and cis ( c) /t- , t/c- , and t/t-18:2 were measured in blood drawn from 2,919 adults aged 74 ± 5 years and free of prevalent DM in 1992. Dietary TFA was estimated among 4,207 adults free of prevalent DM when dietary questionnaires were initially administered in 1989 or 1996. Incident DM was defined through 2010 by medication use or blood glucose levels. Risks were assessed by Cox proportional hazards.

          RESULTS

          In biomarker analyses, 287 DM cases occurred during 30,825 person-years. Both t-16:1n9 (extreme quartile hazard ratio 1.59 [95% CI 1.04–2.42], P-trend = 0.04) and t-18:1 (1.91 [1.20–3.03], P-trend = 0.01) levels were associated with higher incident DM after adjustment for de novo lipogenesis fatty acids. In dietary analyses, 407 DM cases occurred during 50,105 person-years. Incident DM was positively associated with consumption of total TFAs (1.38 [1.03–1.86], P-trend = 0.02), t-18:1 (1.32 [1.00–1.76], P-trend = 0.04), and t-18:2 (1.41 [1.05–1.89], P-trend = 0.02). After further adjustment for other dietary habits, however, the associations of estimated dietary TFA with DM were attenuated, and only nonsignificant positive trends remained.

          CONCLUSIONS

          Among older adults, plasma phospholipid t-16:1n9 and t-18:1 levels were positively related to DM after adjustment for de novo lipogenesis fatty acids. Estimated dietary TFA was not significantly associated with DM. These findings highlight the need for further observational, interventional, and experimental studies of the effects TFA on DM.

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          Most cited references 30

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          The Cardiovascular Health Study: design and rationale.

          The Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) is a population-based, longitudinal study of coronary heart disease and stroke in adults aged 65 years and older. The main objective of the study is to identify factors related to the onset and course of coronary heart disease and stroke. CHS is designed to determine the importance of conventional cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in older adults, and to identify new risk factors in this age group, especially those that may be protective and modifiable. The study design called for enrollment of 1250 men and women in each of four communities: Forsyth County, North Carolina; Sacramento County, California; Washington County, Maryland; and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Eligible participants were sampled from Medicare eligibility lists in each area. Extensive physical and laboratory evaluations were performed at baseline to identify the presence and severity of CVD risk factors such as hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and glucose intolerance; subclinical disease such as carotid artery atherosclerosis, left ventricular enlargement, and transient ischemia; and clinically overt CVD. These examinations in CHS permit evaluation of CVD risk factors in older adults, particularly in groups previously under-represented in epidemiologic studies, such as women and the very old. The first of two examination cycles began in June 1989. A second comprehensive examination will be repeated three years later. Periodic interim contacts are scheduled to ascertain and verify the incidence of CVD events, the frequency of recurrent events, and the sequellae of CVD.
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            Dietary fat and meat intake in relation to risk of type 2 diabetes in men.

            To examine dietary fat and meat intake in relation to risk of type 2 diabetes. We prospectively followed 42,504 male participants of the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study who were aged 40-75 years and free of diagnosed diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer in 1986. Diet was assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire and updated in 1990 and 1994. During 12 years of follow-up, we ascertained 1,321 incident cases of type 2 diabetes. Intakes of total fat (multivariate RR for extreme quintiles 1.27, CI 1.04-1.55, P for trend=0.02) and saturated fat (1.34, 1.09-1.66, P for trend=0.01) were associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes. However, these associations disappeared after additional adjustment for BMI (total fat RR 0.97, CI 0.79-1.18; saturated fat 0.97, 0.79-1.20). Intakes of oleic acid, trans-fat, long-chain n-3 fat, and alpha-linolenic acid were not associated with diabetes risk after multivariate adjustment. Linoleic acid was associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes in men or = 5/week vs. <1/month, P for trend <0.0001). Total and saturated fat intake were associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes, but these associations were not independent of BMI. Frequent consumption of processed meats may increase risk of type 2 diabetes.
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              Dietary fat intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in women.

              The long-term relations between specific types of dietary fat and risk of type 2 diabetes remain unclear. Our objective was to examine the relations between dietary fat intakes and the risk of type 2 diabetes. We prospectively followed 84204 women aged 34-59 y with no diabetes, cardiovascular disease, or cancer in 1980. Detailed dietary information was assessed at baseline and updated in 1984, 1986, and 1990 by using validated questionnaires. Relative risks of type 2 diabetes were obtained from pooled logistic models adjusted for nondietary and dietary covariates. During 14 y of follow-up, 2507 incident cases of type 2 diabetes were documented. Total fat intake, compared with equivalent energy intake from carbohydrates, was not associated with risk of type 2 diabetes; for a 5% increase in total energy from fat, the relative risk (RR) was 0.98 (95% CI: 0.94, 1.02). Intakes of saturated or monounsaturated fatty acids were also not significantly associated with the risk of diabetes. However, for a 5% increase in energy from polyunsaturated fat, the RR was 0.63 (0.53, 0.76; P < 0.0001) and for a 2% increase in energy from trans fatty acids the RR was 1.39 (1.15, 1.67; P = 0.0006). We estimated that replacing 2% of energy from trans fatty acids isoenergetically with polyunsaturated fat would lead to a 40% lower risk (RR: 0.60; 95% CI: 0.48, 0.75). These data suggest that total fat and saturated and monounsaturated fatty acid intakes are not associated with risk of type 2 diabetes in women, but that trans fatty acids increase and polyunsaturated fatty acids reduce risk. Substituting nonhydrogenated polyunsaturated fatty acids for trans fatty acids would likely reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes substantially.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Diabetes Care
                Diabetes Care
                diacare
                dcare
                Diabetes Care
                Diabetes Care
                American Diabetes Association
                0149-5992
                1935-5548
                June 2015
                17 March 2015
                : 38
                : 6
                : 1099-1107
                Affiliations
                1Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA
                2Medical Research Council Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Cambridge, U.K.
                3Department of Biostatistics, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA
                4Department of Medicine, Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, University of Washington, Seattle, WA
                5Department of Internal Medicine, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM
                6Public Health Sciences Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA
                7Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA
                8Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA
                9Division of General Medicine and Primary Care, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA
                10Division of Aging, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA
                11Boston Veterans Affairs Healthcare System, Boston, MA
                12New York Academy of Medicine, New York, NY
                13Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy, Tufts University, Boston, MA
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Qianyi Wang, qiw586@ 123456mail.harvard.edu .
                Article
                2101
                10.2337/dc14-2101
                4439533
                25784660
                © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.
                Page count
                Pages: 9
                Product
                Categories
                Epidemiology/Health Services Research

                Endocrinology & Diabetes

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