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      Regulation and Function of NF-κB Transcription Factors in the Immune System

      1 , 1

      Annual Review of Immunology

      Annual Reviews

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          Abstract

          The mammalian Rel/NF-kappaB family of transcription factors, including RelA, c-Rel, RelB, NF-kappaB1 (p50 and its precursor p105), and NF-kappaB2 (p52 and its precursor p100), plays a central role in the immune system by regulating several processes ranging from the development and survival of lymphocytes and lymphoid organs to the control of immune responses and malignant transformation. The five members of the NF-kappaB family are normally kept inactive in the cytoplasm by interaction with inhibitors called IkappaBs or the unprocessed forms of NF-kappaB1 and NF-kappaB2. A wide variety of signals emanating from antigen receptors, pattern-recognition receptors, receptors for the members of TNF and IL-1 cytokine families, and others induce differential activation of NF-kappaB heterodimers. Although work over the past two decades has shed significant light on the regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factors and their functions, much progress has been made in the past two years revealing new insights into the regulation and functions of NF-kappaB. This recent progress is covered in this review.

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          Most cited references 246

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          Induction of TNF receptor I-mediated apoptosis via two sequential signaling complexes.

          Apoptosis induced by TNF-receptor I (TNFR1) is thought to proceed via recruitment of the adaptor FADD and caspase-8 to the receptor complex. TNFR1 signaling is also known to activate the transcription factor NF-kappa B and promote survival. The mechanism by which this decision between cell death and survival is arbitrated is not clear. We report that TNFR1-induced apoptosis involves two sequential signaling complexes. The initial plasma membrane bound complex (complex I) consists of TNFR1, the adaptor TRADD, the kinase RIP1, and TRAF2 and rapidly signals activation of NF-kappa B. In a second step, TRADD and RIP1 associate with FADD and caspase-8, forming a cytoplasmic complex (complex II). When NF-kappa B is activated by complex I, complex II harbors the caspase-8 inhibitor FLIP(L) and the cell survives. Thus, TNFR1-mediated-signal transduction includes a checkpoint, resulting in cell death (via complex II) in instances where the initial signal (via complex I, NF-kappa B) fails to be activated.
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            IAP antagonists induce autoubiquitination of c-IAPs, NF-kappaB activation, and TNFalpha-dependent apoptosis.

            Inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins are antiapoptotic regulators that block cell death in response to diverse stimuli. They are expressed at elevated levels in human malignancies and are attractive targets for the development of novel cancer therapeutics. Herein, we demonstrate that small-molecule IAP antagonists bind to select baculovirus IAP repeat (BIR) domains resulting in dramatic induction of auto-ubiquitination activity and rapid proteasomal degradation of c-IAPs. The IAP antagonists also induce cell death that is dependent on TNF signaling and de novo protein biosynthesis. Additionally, the c-IAP proteins were found to function as regulators of NF-kappaB signaling. Through their ubiquitin E3 ligase activities c-IAP1 and c-IAP2 promote proteasomal degradation of NIK, the central ser/thr kinase in the noncanonical NF-kappaB pathway.
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              IAP antagonists target cIAP1 to induce TNFalpha-dependent apoptosis.

              XIAP prevents apoptosis by binding to and inhibiting caspases, and this inhibition can be relieved by IAP antagonists, such as Smac/DIABLO. IAP antagonist compounds (IACs) have therefore been designed to inhibit XIAP to kill tumor cells. Because XIAP inhibits postmitochondrial caspases, caspase 8 inhibitors should not block killing by IACs. Instead, we show that apoptosis caused by an IAC is blocked by the caspase 8 inhibitor crmA and that IAP antagonists activate NF-kappaB signaling via inhibtion of cIAP1. In sensitive tumor lines, IAP antagonist induced NF-kappaB-stimulated production of TNFalpha that killed cells in an autocrine fashion. Inhibition of NF-kappaB reduced TNFalpha production, and blocking NF-kappaB activation or TNFalpha allowed tumor cells to survive IAC-induced apoptosis. Cells treated with an IAC, or those in which cIAP1 was deleted, became sensitive to apoptosis induced by exogenous TNFalpha, suggesting novel uses of these compounds in treating cancer.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Annual Review of Immunology
                Annu. Rev. Immunol.
                Annual Reviews
                0732-0582
                1545-3278
                April 2009
                April 2009
                : 27
                : 1
                : 693-733
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Laboratory of Gene Regulation and Signal Transduction, Departments of Pharmacology and Pathology, Cancer Center, University of California, San Diego, California 93093; email:
                Article
                10.1146/annurev.immunol.021908.132641
                © 2009

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