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      Four new species of the planthopper genus Metanigrus Tsaur, Yang & Wilson from China (Hemiptera, Fulgoromorpha, Meenoplidae)

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          Abstract

          Four new species of the genus Metanigrus Tsaur, Yang & Wilson, 1986, M. chromus Lv & Chen, sp. nov., M. guttatus Lv & Chen, sp. nov., M. gremius Lv & Chen, sp. nov., and M. spinatus Lv, Chen & Bourgoin, sp. nov. from China (Hubei, Guizhou and Yunnan), are described and illustrated, giving the genus six species in total. A key to all known species of Metanigrus is provided, as well as a map of their geographic distributions.

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          Most cited references 13

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          An update of Wallace's zoogeographic regions of the world.

          Modern attempts to produce biogeographic maps focus on the distribution of species, and the maps are typically drawn without phylogenetic considerations. Here, we generate a global map of zoogeographic regions by combining data on the distributions and phylogenetic relationships of 21,037 species of amphibians, birds, and mammals. We identify 20 distinct zoogeographic regions, which are grouped into 11 larger realms. We document the lack of support for several regions previously defined based on distributional data and show that spatial turnover in the phylogenetic composition of vertebrate assemblages is higher in the Southern than in the Northern Hemisphere. We further show that the integration of phylogenetic information provides valuable insight on historical relationships among regions, permitting the identification of evolutionarily unique regions of the world.
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            From micropterism to hyperpterism: recognition strategy and standardized homology-driven terminology of the forewing venation patterns in planthoppers (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha)

            Following recent advances in the morphological interpretations of the tegmen basal cell margins in the Paraneoptera, a standardized and homology-driven groundplan terminology for tegmina types, structures and vein patterns in Hemiptera Fulgoromorpha, including fossils, is proposed. Each term is listed with a morphological definition, compared and linked to the main systems of planthopper forewing description that have been reviewed. The importance of a standardized and homology-driven terminology is stressed to enhance the quality of data in taxonomic descriptions and to strengthen phylogenetic morphological analysis results. When the interpretation of the origin of vein branches is render difficult, a three-step strategy for pattern recognition of the vein is proposed based on two principles: (1) vein forks are more informative than topology of the vein branches: a search for homologous areas, the nodal cells in particular, must first guide the recognition rather the number of branches of a vein, and (2) minimum of ad hoc evolutionary events should be invoked in the understanding of a modified vein pattern. Examples of some conflicting interpretations of venation patterns in planthoppers are discussed within different families for both extant and extinct taxa. For the first time, the concept of brachypterism is defined in a non-relative way independently from other structures, and the new one of hyperpterism is proposed; a reporting system is proposed for each of them.
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              The Meenoplidae (Hemiptera, Fulgoromorpha) of New Caledonia, with a revision of the genus Eponisia Matsumura, 1914, and new morphological data on forewing venation and wax plate areas.

               T Bourgoin,  Bourgoin (1997)
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (View ORCID Profile)
                Journal
                ZooKeys
                ZK
                Pensoft Publishers
                1313-2970
                1313-2989
                March 16 2021
                March 16 2021
                : 1024
                : 197-213
                Article
                10.3897/zookeys.1024.62226
                © 2021

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