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    Active and stable platinum/ionic liquid/carbon nanotube electrocatalysts for oxidation of methanol

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        Abstract

        Platinum (Pt) nanoparticles (NPs) on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been prepared from PtCl62− ions through a facile ionic liquid (IL)-assisted method and used for methanol oxidation. 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium (BMIM) with four different counter ions (PF6, Cl, Br, and I) has been tested for the preparation of Pt/IL/CNT nanohybrids, showing the counter ions of ILs play an important role in the formation of small sizes of Pt NPs. Only [BMIM][PF6] and [BMIM][Cl] allow reproducible preparation of Pt/IL/CNT nanohybrids. The electroactive surface areas of Pt/[BMIM][PF6]/CNT, Pt/[BMIM][Cl]/CNT, Pt/CNT, and commercial Pt/C electrodes are 62.8, 101.5, 78.3, and 87.4 m2 g−1, respectively. The Pt/[BMIM][Cl]/CNT nanohybrid-modified electrodes provide higher catalytic activity (251.0 A g−1) at a negative onset potential of −0.60 V than commercial Pt/C-modified ones do (133.5 A g−1) at −0.46 V. The Pt/[BMIM][Cl]/CNT electrode provides the highest ratio (4.52) of forward/reverse oxidation current peak, revealing a little accumulation of carbonaceous residues.

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        Most cited references 95

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        Carbon nanotubes--the route toward applications.

        Many potential applications have been proposed for carbon nanotubes, including conductive and high-strength composites; energy storage and energy conversion devices; sensors; field emission displays and radiation sources; hydrogen storage media; and nanometer-sized semiconductor devices, probes, and interconnects. Some of these applications are now realized in products. Others are demonstrated in early to advanced devices, and one, hydrogen storage, is clouded by controversy. Nanotube cost, polydispersity in nanotube type, and limitations in processing and assembly methods are important barriers for some applications of single-walled nanotubes.
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          Functionalization density dependence of single-walled carbon nanotubes cytotoxicity in vitro.

          The cytotoxic response of cells in culture is dependant on the degree of functionalization of the single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT). After characterizing a set of water-dispersible SWNTs, we performed in vitro cytotoxicity screens on cultured human dermal fibroblasts (HDF). The SWNT samples used in this exposure include SWNT-phenyl-SO(3)H and SWNT-phenyl-SO(3)Na (six samples with carbon/-phenyl-SO(3)X ratios of 18, 41, and 80), SWNT-phenyl-(COOH)(2) (one sample with carbon/-phenyl-(COOH)(2) ratio of 23), and underivatized SWNT stabilized in 1% Pluronic F108. We have found that as the degree of sidewall functionalization increases, the SWNT sample becomes less cytotoxic. Further, sidewall functionalized SWNT samples are substantially less cytotoxic than surfactant stabilized SWNTs. Even though cell death did not exceed 50% for cells dosed with sidewall functionalized SWNTs, optical and atomic force microscopies show direct contact between cellular membranes and water-dispersible SWNTs; i.e. the SWNTs in aqueous suspension precipitate out and selectively deposit on the membrane.
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            Metal nanoparticles and related materials supported on carbon nanotubes: methods and applications.

            Carbon nanotubes are one of the most intensively explored nanostructured materials. In particular, carbon nanotubes are unique and ideal templates onto which to immobilize nanoparticles allowing the construction of designed nanoarchitectures that are extremely attractive as supports for heterogeneous catalysts, for use in fuel cells, and in related technologies that exploit the inherent 'smallness' and hollow characteristics of the nanoparticles. Here we overview the recent developments in this area by exploring the various techniques in which nanotubes can be functionalized with metals and other nanoparticles and explore the diverse applications of the resulting materials.
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              Author and article information

              Affiliations
              [1]Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, 1, Section 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan
              Author notes
              [*]Corresponding author's e-mail address: changht@123456ntu.edu.tw
              Contributors
              (View ORCID Profile)
              (View ORCID Profile)
              Journal
              SOR-CHEM
              ScienceOpen Research
              ScienceOpen
              2199-1006
              09 October 2014
              29 July 2015
              : 0 (ID: 5d304b97-4244-4235-8cf7-546b348dd9fd)
              : 0
              : 1-8
              © 2015 Lin et al.

              This work has been published open access under Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Conditions, terms of use and publishing policy can be found at www.scienceopen.com.

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              Figures: 4, Tables: 0, References: 57, Pages: 8
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              Self URI (pdf): 2929_XE_SOR-CHEM.pdf
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