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      Oxidative stress and cardiovascular disease in dialyzed patients.

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          Abstract

          Oxidative damage has been suggested to play a key role in accelerated atherosclerosis and to be involved in cardiovascular disease (CVD) of dialyzed patients who are at risk of increased oxidative stress. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between the severity of CVD and some markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant activity in our hemodialyzed (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients.

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          Most cited references 5

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          Secondary prevention with antioxidants of cardiovascular disease in endstage renal disease (SPACE): randomised placebo-controlled trial

           U Gafter,  A Iaina,  A. Knecht (2000)
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            Serum malondialdehyde and prevalent cardiovascular disease in hemodialysis.

            Oxidative stress has been proposed as a mechanism by which the accelerated rate of cardiovascular disease (CVD) observed in maintenance hemodialysis (HD) patients may be explained. This study examined the effects of HD and CVD on serum malondialdehyde (MDA) levels as a marker of oxidative stress in HD patients with and without prevalent CVD. Serum MDA levels and CVD prevalence in HD were modeled. Serum MDA was determined using spectrophotometry in HD patients (N = 76, 53 men and 23 women, mean age 63.8 years) immediately prior to and at the conclusion of one midweek HD treatment. Traditional CVD risk factors, including serum lipids, lipoproteins, apolipoproteins, and fibrinogen, were also measured, as were serum chemistry and dialysis adequacy. Mean serum MDA levels were significantly elevated in HD patients with prevalent CVD compared with those without, whereas serum lipoprotein and plasma fibrinogen levels did not differ between the two groups. Patients in the highest compared with the lowest tertile of postdialysis MDA were nearly four times as likely to have prevalent CVD, and serum MDA was the single strongest predictor of prevalent CVD in this patient population. These findings indicate the presence of oxidative stress in HD patients, and are consistent with the theory of oxidative stress as a factor in accelerated CVD in this population.
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              Autoxidation products of both carbohydrates and lipids are increased in uremic plasma: is there oxidative stress in uremia?

              Advanced glycation end products (AGEs), formed by non-enzymatic glycation and oxidation (glycoxidation) reactions, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including normoglycemic uremia. AGE research in uremia has focused on the accumulation of carbohydrate-derived adducts generated by the Maillard reaction. Recent studies, however, have demonstrated that one AGE, the glycoxidation product carboxymethyllysine (CML), could be derived not only from carbohydrates but also from oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in vitro, raising the possibility that both carbohydrate and lipid autoxidation might be increased in uremia. To address this hypothesis, we applied gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography to measure protein adducts formed in uremic plasma by reactions between carbonyl compounds and protein amino groups: pentosidine derived from carbohydrate-derived carbonyls, malondialdehyde (MDA)-lysine derived from lipid-derived carbonyls, and CML originating possibly from both sources. All three adducts were elevated in uremic plasma. Plasma CML levels were mainly (>95%) albumin bound. Their levels were not correlated with fructoselysine levels and were similar in diabetic and non-diabetic patients on hemodialysis, indicating that their increase was not driven by glucose. Pentosidine and MDA-lysine were also increased in plasma to the same extent in diabetic and non-diabetic hemodialysis patients. Statistical analysis indicated that plasma levels of CML correlated weakly (P 0.5). These data suggest that the increased levels of AGEs in blood, and probably in tissues, reported in uremia implicate a broad derangement in non-enzymatic biochemistry involving alterations in autoxidation of both carbohydrates and lipids.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nephron
                Nephron
                S. Karger AG
                1660-8151
                1660-8151
                May 2002
                : 91
                : 1
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Servizio di Nefrologia e Dialisi, Ospedale di Leno, Leno, Italia.
                Article
                57601
                10.1159/000057601
                12021516

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