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      Ocular Manifestations, Visual Field Pattern, and Visual Field Test Performance in Traumatic Brain Injury and Stroke


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          To analyze ocular manifestations, visual field (VF) pattern, and VF test performance in traumatic brain injury (TBI) and stroke patients.


          This retrospective, cross-sectional study included 118 patients (236 eyes) with TBI and stroke who had undergone VF testing by standard automated perimetry with the central 24-2 threshold test. Clinical features including best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), intraocular pressure (IOP), ocular manifestations, and VF test results including VF defect pattern, reliability, and global indices were analyzed and compared between the TBI and stroke patients.


          In TBI patients, ocular manifestations included strabismus (11.1%), cataract (4.2%), and glaucoma suspect (2.8%), whereas in stroke patients, cataract (15.2%), strabismus (8.5%), diabetic retinopathy (4.9%), extraocular movement (EOM) limitation (3.0%), glaucoma suspect (3.0%), nystagmus (2.4%), drusen (1.2%), and vitreous hemorrhage (1.2%) were found. The VF test results showed that 47 eyes (85.5%) in TBI and 86 (65.2%) in stroke had VF defect; in TBI, the scattered pattern was the most common (56.4%), followed by homonymous hemianopsia (14.5%), homonymous quadrantanopia (10.9%), and total defect (3.6%), whereas in stroke, homonymous hemianopsia was the most common (31.8%), followed by scattered pattern (16.7%), homonymous quadrantanopia (12.1%), and total defect (4.5%). Only 15 eyes (27.3%) in TBI and 32 (24.2%) in stroke showed reliable VF indices. The mean deviation (MD) was −10.5 ± 7.1 dB in TBI and −9.5 ± 6.8 dB in stroke, and the pattern standard deviation (PSD) was 4.9 ± 3.3 dB in TBI and 6.1 ± 3.9 dB in stroke, without statistically significant differences between the two groups.


          Various ocular manifestations were found, and a considerable proportion of patients were experiencing VF defects and showed unreliable VF test performance. Our findings suggest that accurate evaluation and rehabilitation of visual function should be a matter of greater concern and emphasis in the management of TBI and stroke patients, besides systemic diseases.

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          Most cited references38

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          Global, regional, and national burden of stroke, 1990–2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016

          Summary Background Stroke is a leading cause of mortality and disability worldwide and the economic costs of treatment and post-stroke care are substantial. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) provides a systematic, comparable method of quantifying health loss by disease, age, sex, year, and location to provide information to health systems and policy makers on more than 300 causes of disease and injury, including stroke. The results presented here are the estimates of burden due to overall stroke and ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke from GBD 2016. Methods We report estimates and corresponding uncertainty intervals (UIs), from 1990 to 2016, for incidence, prevalence, deaths, years of life lost (YLLs), years lived with disability (YLDs), and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs). DALYs were generated by summing YLLs and YLDs. Cause-specific mortality was estimated using an ensemble modelling process with vital registration and verbal autopsy data as inputs. Non-fatal estimates were generated using Bayesian meta-regression incorporating data from registries, scientific literature, administrative records, and surveys. The Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a summary indicator generated using educational attainment, lagged distributed income, and total fertility rate, was used to group countries into quintiles. Findings In 2016, there were 5·5 million (95% UI 5·3 to 5·7) deaths and 116·4 million (111·4 to 121·4) DALYs due to stroke. The global age-standardised mortality rate decreased by 36·2% (−39·3 to −33·6) from 1990 to 2016, with decreases in all SDI quintiles. Over the same period, the global age-standardised DALY rate declined by 34·2% (−37·2 to −31·5), also with decreases in all SDI quintiles. There were 13·7 million (12·7 to 14·7) new stroke cases in 2016. Global age-standardised incidence declined by 8·1% (−10·7 to −5·5) from 1990 to 2016 and decreased in all SDI quintiles except the middle SDI group. There were 80·1 million (74·1 to 86·3) prevalent cases of stroke globally in 2016; 41·1 million (38·0 to 44·3) in women and 39·0 million (36·1 to 42·1) in men. Interpretation Although age-standardised mortality rates have decreased sharply from 1990 to 2016, the decrease in age-standardised incidence has been less steep, indicating that the burden of stroke is likely to remain high. Planned updates to future GBD iterations include generating separate estimates for subarachnoid haemorrhage and intracerebral haemorrhage, generating estimates of transient ischaemic attack, and including atrial fibrillation as a risk factor. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
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            Traumatic brain injury: integrated approaches to improve prevention, clinical care, and research

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              Economic burden of stroke: a systematic review on post-stroke care

              Stroke is a leading cause for disability and morbidity associated with increased economic burden due to treatment and post-stroke care (PSC). The aim of our study is to provide information on resource consumption for PSC, to identify relevant cost drivers, and to discuss potential information gaps.

                Author and article information

                J Ophthalmol
                J Ophthalmol
                Journal of Ophthalmology
                7 January 2022
                : 2022
                1Department of Ophthalmology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea
                2National Traffic Injury Rehabilitation Hospital, Yangpyeong, Republic of Korea
                3Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: David P. Piñero

                Copyright © 2022 Yun Jeong Lee et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Funded by: MOLIT Research Fund
                Award ID: 0720205042 (NTRH-20007)
                Research Article

                Ophthalmology & Optometry
                Ophthalmology & Optometry


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