Kendall S Frazier 1 , Jeffery A Engelhardt 2 , Pierluigi Fant 3 , Silvia Guionaud 4 , Scott P Henry 2 , Michael W Leach 5 , Calvert Louden 6 , Marshall S Scicchitano 7 , James L Weaver 8 , Tanja S Zabka
Drug-induced vascular injury (DIVI) is a recurrent challenge in the development of novel pharmaceutical agents. Although DIVI in laboratory animal species has been well characterized for vasoactive small molecules, there is little available information regarding DIVI associated with biotherapeutics such as peptides/proteins or antibodies. Because of the uncertainty about whether DIVI in preclinical studies is predictive of effects in humans and the lack of robust biomarkers of DIVI, preclinical DIVI findings can cause considerable delays in or even halt development of promising new drugs. This review discusses standard terminology, characteristics, and mechanisms of DIVI associated with biotherapeutics. Guidance and points to consider for the toxicologist and pathologist facing preclinical cases of biotherapeutic-related DIVI are outlined, and examples of regulatory feedback for each of the mechanistic types of DIVI are included to provide insight into risk assessment.