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      Seafood through time revisited: the Phanerozoic increase in marine trophic resources and its macroevolutionary consequences

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      Paleobiology
      Paleontological Society

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          Abstract

          We review and synthesize multiple biotic and abiotic proxies for marine nutrient and food availability, primary productivity, and food quality (stoichiometry) and propose what their relationships may have been to macroevolutionary processes, especially speciation. This review confirms earlier suggestions that there has been an overall increase in marine primary productivity over the Phanerozoic, but indicates that the increase has been irregular and that present levels may not be the peak. We integrate these indicators into a new estimate of relative primary productivity in the global ocean through the Phanerozoic. We then combine multiple, frequently conflicting ecological-evolutionary hypotheses into a general model for how primary production may affect speciation over geological time scales. This model, an elaboration and extension of the “speciation cycle” previously proposed by Grant and Grant, attempts to explain why an increase in food supply sometimes is associated with decreased diversity, and at other times with increased diversification. We propose some simple tests for the application of this model to the fossil record.

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          Trends, rhythms, and aberrations in global climate 65 Ma to present.

          Since 65 million years ago (Ma), Earth's climate has undergone a significant and complex evolution, the finer details of which are now coming to light through investigations of deep-sea sediment cores. This evolution includes gradual trends of warming and cooling driven by tectonic processes on time scales of 10(5) to 10(7) years, rhythmic or periodic cycles driven by orbital processes with 10(4)- to 10(6)-year cyclicity, and rare rapid aberrant shifts and extreme climate transients with durations of 10(3) to 10(5) years. Here, recent progress in defining the evolution of global climate over the Cenozoic Era is reviewed. We focus primarily on the periodic and anomalous components of variability over the early portion of this era, as constrained by the latest generation of deep-sea isotope records. We also consider how this improved perspective has led to the recognition of previously unforeseen mechanisms for altering climate.
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            Chronology of fluctuating sea levels since the triassic.

            Advances in sequence stratigraphy and the development of depositional models have helped explain the origin of genetically related sedimentary packages during sea level cycles. These concepts have provided the basis for the recognition of sea level events in subsurface data and in outcrops of marine sediments around the world. Knowledge of these events has led to a new generation of Mesozoic and Cenozoic global cycle charts that chronicle the history of sea level fluctuations during the past 250 million years in greater detail than was possible from seismic-stratigraphic data alone. An effort has been made to develop a realistic and accurate time scale and widely applicable chronostratigraphy and to integrate depositional sequences documented in public domain outcrop sections from various basins with this chronostratigraphic framework. A description of this approach and an account of the results, illustrated by sea level cycle charts of the Cenozoic, Cretaceous, Jurassic, and Triassic intervals, are presented.
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              A General Hypothesis of Species Diversity

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                applab
                Paleobiology
                Paleobiology
                Paleontological Society
                0094-8373
                1938-5331
                2014
                April 2016
                : 40
                : 02
                : 256-287
                Article
                10.1666/13065
                99cbebe9-bcd6-46ce-8a59-1f9a30ecda43
                © 2014

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