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      Fasciola hepatica: comparative metacercarial productions in experimentally-infected Galba truncatula and Pseudosuccinea columella Translated title: Fasciola hepatica : productions métacercariennes comparées chez Galba truncatula et Pseudosuccinea columella infestés expérimentalement

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          As large numbers of metacercariae of Fasciola hepatica are necessary for research, experimental infections of Galba truncatula and Pseudosuccinea columella with this digenean were carried out to determine the better intermediate host for metacercarial production and, consequently, the most profitable snail for decreasing the cost price of these larvae. Pre-adult snails (4 mm in shell height) originating from two populations per lymnaeid species were individually exposed to two or five miracidia, raised at 23 °C and followed for cercarial shedding up to their death. Compared to values noted in G. truncatula, the survival of P. columella on day 30 post-exposure was significantly greater, while the prevalence of F. hepatica infection was significantly lower. In the four P. columella groups, metacercarial production was significantly greater than that noted in the four groups of G. truncatula (347–453 per cercariae-shedding snail versus 163–275, respectively). Apart from one population of G. truncatula, the use of five miracidia per snail at exposure significantly increased the prevalence of F. hepatica in P. columella and the other population of G. truncatula, whereas it did not have any clear effect on the mean number of metacercariae. The use of P. columella for experimental infections with F. hepatica resulted in significantly higher metacercarial production than that noted with G. truncatula, in spite of a lower prevalence for the former lymnaeid. This finding allows for a significant decrease in the cost price of these larvae for commercial production.

          Translated abstract

          Comme des quantités importantes de métacercaires de Fasciola hepatica sont nécessaires à des fins de recherche, des infestations expérimentales de Galba truncatula et de Pseudosuccinea columella avec ce Digène ont été réalisées dans ce but afin de déterminer quel est le meilleur hôte intermédiaire pour la production métacercarienne et, par suite, quel est le mollusque le plus rentable pour diminuer le prix de revient de ces larves. Des mollusques préadultes (4 mm de hauteur) provenant de deux populations pour chaque espèce de limnée ont été soumis individuellement à deux ou cinq miracidiums avant d’être élevés à 23° C et suivis pour les émissions cercariennes jusqu’à leur mort. Par rapport aux valeurs notées chez G. truncatula, la survie de P. columella au 30 ème jour post-exposition est significativement plus élevée alors que la prévalence de l’infestation par F. hepatica est significativement plus faible. Dans les quatre groupes de P. columella, la production métacercarienne est significativement plus importante que celle notée dans les quatre groupes de G. truncatula (347–453 par mollusque émettant des cercaires au lieu de 163–275). À l’exception d’une population de G. truncatula, l’emploi de cinq miracidiums par mollusque lors de l’exposition se traduit par une augmentation significative de la prévalence de F. hepatica chez P. columella et l’autre population de G. truncatula, alors qu’il n’y a pas d’effet net sur la production métacercarienne. L’utilisation de P. columella pour des infestations expérimentales avec F. hepatica permet d’avoir une production métacercarienne plus importante que celle fournie par G. truncatula, malgré une prévalence plus faible chez la première limnée. Ce résultat permet de diminuer de manière significative le prix de revient de ces larves pour la production commerciale.

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          Most cited references 17

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          Some observations on the epidemiology of fascioliasis in relation to the timing of molluscicide applications in the control of the disease.

           C Ollerenshaw (1971)
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            Optimization of metacercarial production for three digenean species by the use of petri dishes for raising lettuce-fed Galba truncatula.

            Experimental infections of Galba truncatula with Fasciola hepatica, Fascioloides magna, or Paramphistomum daubneyi were carried out at 20 degrees C to determine if the use of 14-cm petri dishes for breeding lettuce-fed snails enhanced the characteristics of snail infections. Compared to infected snails raised in boxes up to day 30 post-exposure and later in individual 35-mm dishes, the survival of G. truncatula kept in 14-cm dishes and the shell height of cercariae-shedding snails during the first 45 days were higher, whatever the digenean species is. The consequence of such enhanced characteristics was a greater production of metacercariae in the case of F. hepatica (1.7 to 5.6 times higher) and P. daubneyi (2.3 times). In contrast, metacercariae of F. magna were few in number, whatever the method of snail breeding is, and this might be explained by a still incomplete adaptation between the parasite of Czech origin and the French population of G. truncatula. The use of these 14-cm dishes reduced the time necessary for snail maintenance and metacercaria collection, thus allowing a decrease in the cost price of these larvae for commercial production.
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              Intermediate snail hosts of French Fasciola hepatica: Lymnaea neotropica and Lymnaea viatrix are better hosts than local Galba truncatula.

              Allopatric and sympatric infections of Lymnaea neotropica and Lymnaea viatrix var. ventricosa with Argentinean and French isolates of Fasciola hepatica were carried out to determine the capacity of these snails to produce metacercariae and to verify if this capacity changed with snail generation. The same process was also made with a French population of Galba truncatula known to be highly susceptible to French isolates of the parasite. In each lymnaeid species separately considered, the survival rate at day 30 post-exposure and prevalence of F. hepatica infection in the group infected with Argentinean miracidia were significantly greater than those recorded in the corresponding French one. Compared to infected G. truncatula, both South American lymnaeids had longer patent periods and produced a higher number of metacercariae. The highest infections were noted with L. v. ventricosa. In the three snail species, metacercarial production was more important with the Argentinean isolate of miracidia than with the French one. If three successive generations of L. v. ventricosa are exposed to the same French isolate of miracidia, cercarial production significantly increased from parents to the F2 generation, while the other characteristics of infection only showed insignificant variations. L. neotropica and L. v. ventricosa are better intermediate hosts for French F. hepatica than local G. truncatula. The numerical increase of shed cercariae in the F1 and F2 generations of L. v. ventricosa demonstrates a rapid adaptation of this species to the French isolate of the parasite.

                Author and article information

                EDP Sciences
                23 April 2015
                : 22
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2015/01 )
                [1 ] INSERM 1094, Faculties of Medicine and Pharmacy 87025 Limoges France
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: gilles.dreyfuss@ 123456unilim.fr
                parasite150018 10.1051/parasite/2015015
                © P. Vignoles et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2015

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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                Figures: 0, Tables: 3, Equations: 0, References: 29, Pages: 7
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