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      Tree inhabiting gnomoniaceous species from China, with Cryphogonomonia gen. nov. proposed

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          Abstract

          Species of Gnomoniaceae are commonly associated with leaf spot diseases of a wide range of plant hosts worldwide. During our investigation of fungi associated with tree diseases in China, several gnomoniaceous isolates were recovered from symptomatic branches and leaves on different woody plants in the Fagaceae, Pinaceae, and Salicaceae families. These isolates were studied by applying a polyphasic approach including morphological, cultural data, and phylogenetic analyses of partial ITS, LSU, tef1, rpb2 and tub2 gene sequences. As a result, three species were identified with characters fitting into the family Gnomoniaceae. One of these species is described herein as Cryphognomonia pini gen. et sp. nov., characterized by developed pseudostromata and ascospores with obvious hyaline sheath; Gnomoniopsis xunwuensis sp. nov. is illustrated showing sympodially branched conidiophore, oval or fusiform conidia; and one known species, Plagiostoma populinum. The current study improves the understanding of gnomoniaceous species causing diebacks and leaf spot on ecological and economic forest trees.

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          Two divergent intragenomic rDNA ITS2 types within a monophyletic lineage of the fungus Fusarium are nonorthologous.

          The evolutionary history of the phytopathogenic Gibberella fujikuroi complex of Fusarium and related species was investigated by cladistic analysis of DNA sequences obtained from multiple unlinked loci. Gene phylogenies inferred from the mitochondrial small subunit (mtSSU) rDNA, nuclear 28S rDNA, and beta-tubulin gene were generally concordant, providing strong support for a fully resolved phylogeny of all biological and most morphological species. Discordance of the nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) gene tree is due to paralogous or xenologous ITS2 sequences. PCR and sequence analysis demonstrated that every strain of the ingroup species tested possesses two highly divergent nonorthologous ITS2 types designated type I and type II. Only the major ITS2 type, however, is discernable when PCR products are amplified and sequenced directly with conserved primers. The minor ITS2 type was recovered using ITS2 type-specific PCR primers. Distribution of the major ITS2 type within the species lineages exhibits a homoplastic pattern of evolution, thus obscuring true phylogenetic relationships. The results suggest that the ancestral ITS2 types may have arisen following an ancient interspecific hybridization or gene duplication which occurred prior to the evolutionary radiation of the Gibberella fujikuroi complex and related species of Fusarium. The results also indicate that current morphological-based taxonomic schemes for these fungi are unnatural and a new classification is required.
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            A method for designing primer sets for speciation studies in filamentous ascomycetes

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              Fungal Planet 127 – 4 June 2012

              Novel species of microfungi described in the present study include the following from Australia: Phytophthora amnicola from still water, Gnomoniopsis smithogilvyi from Castanea sp., Pseudoplagiostoma corymbiae from Corymbia sp., Diaporthe eucalyptorum from Eucalyptus sp., Sporisorium andrewmitchellii from Enneapogon aff. lindleyanus, Myrmecridium banksiae from Banksia, and Pilidiella wangiensis from Eucalyptus sp. Several species are also described from South Africa, namely: Gondwanamyces wingfieldii from Protea caffra, Montagnula aloes from Aloe sp., Diaporthe canthii from Canthium inerne, Phyllosticta ericarum from Erica gracilis, Coleophoma proteae from Protea caffra, Toxicocladosporium strelitziae from Strelitzia reginae, and Devriesia agapanthi from Agapanthus africanus. Other species include Phytophthora asparagi from Asparagus officinalis (USA), and Diaporthe passiflorae from Passiflora edulis (South America). Furthermore, novel genera of coelomycetes include Chrysocrypta corymbiae from Corymbia sp. (Australia), Trinosporium guianense, isolated as a contaminant (French Guiana), and Xenosonderhenia syzygii, from Syzygium cordatum (South Africa). Pseudopenidiella piceae from Picea abies (Czech Republic), and Phaeocercospora colophospermi from Colophospermum mopane (South Africa) represent novel genera of hyphomycetes. Morphological and culture characteristics along with ITS DNA barcodes are provided for all taxa.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                MycoKeys
                MC
                Pensoft Publishers
                1314-4049
                1314-4057
                July 09 2020
                July 09 2020
                : 69
                : 71-89
                Article
                10.3897/mycokeys.69.54012
                © 2020

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