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Factores de riesgo cardiovascular en escolares entre 7 y 14 años en Cartagena, Colombia, 2009

Revista de Salud Pública

Instituto de Salud Publica, Faculdad de Medicina -Universidad Nacional de Colombia

prevención y control, promoción de la salud, enfermedades cardiovasculares, Factores de riesgo, prevention and control, health promotion, cardiovascular disease, Risk factor

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      Abstract

      Objetivo Identificar antecedentes familiares, dislipidemias, hiperglucemia, escasa actividad física y sobrepeso u obesidad como factores de riesgo cardiovascular en niños entre 7 y 14 años de Cartagena, 2009. Materiales y Métodos Se realizó un estudio descriptivo en 173 niños de Cartagena, Colombia. Se determinaron los parámetros bioquímicos en suero mediante técnicas espectrofotométricas. Los hábitos fueron indagados mediante entrevista y las alteraciones de peso fueron establecidas utilizando el índice de masa corporal. Resultados La muestra quedó conformada por 87 niñas y 86 niños con edad promedio de 9,9 años (IC95 % 9,6-10,3). El 75,1 % (IC95 % 68,7-81.5) presentaron antecedentes familiares; 2,3 % (IC95 % 0,1-4,5) tuvieron sobrepeso y 1,7 % (IC95 % 0,0-3,6) obesidad. Más de la mitad de los niños presentaron niveles elevados de colesterol total (53,2 %; IC95 % 45,8-60,6) y LDL (57,2 %; IC95 % 49,8-64,6). El colesterol no HDL se halló incrementado en el 46,8 % (IC95 % 39,4-54,2). Las niñas presentaron mayor concentración de triglicéridos (94,1 mg/dL; IC95 % 93,0-95,2 mg/dL) que los niños (81,7 mg/dL; IC95 % 80,6-82,8 mg/dL) con diferencia significativa (p=0,005) y también presentaron con mayor frecuencia baja actividad física (niñas: 83,8 %; IC95 % 73,5-94,5 %; varones: 44,2 %; IC95 % 45,4-66,6; p=0,0001). Conclusión Los factores de riesgo cardiovascular presentes en esta población, inclusive en ausencia de obesidad, muestran la necesidad de implementar programas que los identifiquen e intervengan de manera oportuna para disminuir su impacto en la calidad de vida futura.

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          Validity of body mass index compared with other body-composition screening indexes for the assessment of body fatness in children and adolescents.

          Validation studies of height- and weight-based indexes of body fatness in children and adolescents have examined only small samples of school-age children. The objective was to validate the performance of age- and sex-specific body mass index (BMI) compared with the Rohrer index (RI) and weight-for-height in screening for both underweight and overweight in children aged 2-19 y. Data from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n = 11096) and a pooled data set from 3 studies that used dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (n = 920) were examined. The receiver operating characteristic curve was used to characterize the sensitivity and specificity of these 3 indexes in classifying both underweight and overweight. Percentage body fat and total fat mass were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Subcutaneous fat was assessed on the basis of the average of triceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses. For children aged 2-19 y, BMI-for-age was significantly better than were weight-for-height and RI-for-age in detecting overweight when average skinfold thicknesses were used as the standard, but no differences were found in detecting underweight. When percentage body fat or total fat mass was used as the standard, BMI-for-age was significantly better than was RI-for-age in detecting overweight in children aged 3-19 y. No differences were found between BMI-for-age and weight-for-height in detecting overweight or underweight. For children and adolescents aged 2-19 y, the performance of BMI-for-age is better than that of RI-for-age in predicting underweight and overweight but is similar to that of weight-for-height.
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            S0124-00642011000200002

            http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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