Blog
About

83
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Major clinical research advances in gynecologic cancer in 2011

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          The annual review of 2011 comprised 11 themes of major research achievements in gynecologic oncology including breast cancer. A potential paradigm shift in the management of ovarian cancer was reviewed through comprehensive genomic analyses and a tumor-specific new intraoperative fluorescence imaging technique using folate receptor-α targeted agent, which is expected to improve intraoperative staging and more radical cytoreduction. In addition, updates of bevacizumab and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors, risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy, and risk evaluation of pelvic mass were discussed. Regarding cervical cancer, this review covered new findings on human papillomavirus vaccines and human papillomavirus tests as well as the current status of clinical trials on locally advanced cervical cancer. The promising role of sentinel lymph node biopsy in the management of early stage endometrial cancer was followed by two notable clinical researches on: exemestane, an aromatase inhibitor, for the prevention of breast cancer and eribulin, a non-taxane microtubule dynamics inhibitor for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. Lastly, in premenopausal women with breast cancer, the effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue on the occurrence of chemotherapy-induced early menopause was discussed.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 146

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          MicroRNAs: genomics, biogenesis, mechanism, and function.

           David Bartel (2004)
          MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous approximately 22 nt RNAs that can play important regulatory roles in animals and plants by targeting mRNAs for cleavage or translational repression. Although they escaped notice until relatively recently, miRNAs comprise one of the more abundant classes of gene regulatory molecules in multicellular organisms and likely influence the output of many protein-coding genes.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Integrated Genomic Analyses of Ovarian Carcinoma

            Summary The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project has analyzed mRNA expression, miRNA expression, promoter methylation, and DNA copy number in 489 high-grade serous ovarian adenocarcinomas (HGS-OvCa) and the DNA sequences of exons from coding genes in 316 of these tumors. These results show that HGS-OvCa is characterized by TP53 mutations in almost all tumors (96%); low prevalence but statistically recurrent somatic mutations in 9 additional genes including NF1, BRCA1, BRCA2, RB1, and CDK12; 113 significant focal DNA copy number aberrations; and promoter methylation events involving 168 genes. Analyses delineated four ovarian cancer transcriptional subtypes, three miRNA subtypes, four promoter methylation subtypes, a transcriptional signature associated with survival duration and shed new light on the impact on survival of tumors with BRCA1/2 and CCNE1 aberrations. Pathway analyses suggested that homologous recombination is defective in about half of tumors, and that Notch and FOXM1 signaling are involved in serous ovarian cancer pathophysiology.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Everolimus in postmenopausal hormone-receptor-positive advanced breast cancer.

              Resistance to endocrine therapy in breast cancer is associated with activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) intracellular signaling pathway. In early studies, the mTOR inhibitor everolimus added to endocrine therapy showed antitumor activity. In this phase 3, randomized trial, we compared everolimus and exemestane versus exemestane and placebo (randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio) in 724 patients with hormone-receptor-positive advanced breast cancer who had recurrence or progression while receiving previous therapy with a nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor in the adjuvant setting or to treat advanced disease (or both). The primary end point was progression-free survival. Secondary end points included survival, response rate, and safety. A preplanned interim analysis was performed by an independent data and safety monitoring committee after 359 progression-free survival events were observed. Baseline characteristics were well balanced between the two study groups. The median age was 62 years, 56% had visceral involvement, and 84% had hormone-sensitive disease. Previous therapy included letrozole or anastrozole (100%), tamoxifen (48%), fulvestrant (16%), and chemotherapy (68%). The most common grade 3 or 4 adverse events were stomatitis (8% in the everolimus-plus-exemestane group vs. 1% in the placebo-plus-exemestane group), anemia (6% vs. <1%), dyspnea (4% vs. 1%), hyperglycemia (4% vs. <1%), fatigue (4% vs. 1%), and pneumonitis (3% vs. 0%). At the interim analysis, median progression-free survival was 6.9 months with everolimus plus exemestane and 2.8 months with placebo plus exemestane, according to assessments by local investigators (hazard ratio for progression or death, 0.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.35 to 0.54; P<0.001). Median progression-free survival was 10.6 months and 4.1 months, respectively, according to central assessment (hazard ratio, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.27 to 0.47; P<0.001). Everolimus combined with an aromatase inhibitor improved progression-free survival in patients with hormone-receptor-positive advanced breast cancer previously treated with nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitors. (Funded by Novartis; BOLERO-2 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00863655.).
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
                [2 ]Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Korea.
                Author notes
                Correspondence to Jae Weon Kim. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 101 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-744, Korea. Tel: 82-2-2072-3511, Fax: 82-2-762-3599, kjwksh@ 123456snu.ac.kr
                Journal
                J Gynecol Oncol
                JGO
                Journal of Gynecologic Oncology
                Korean Society of Gynecologic Oncology and Colposcopy
                2005-0380
                2005-0399
                January 2012
                09 January 2012
                : 23
                : 1
                : 53-64
                3280068
                22355468
                10.3802/jgo.2012.23.1.53
                Copyright © 2012. Asian Society of Gynecologic Oncology, Korean Society of Gynecologic Oncology

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Review Article

                Comments

                Comment on this article