The annual review of 2011 comprised 11 themes of major research achievements in gynecologic oncology including breast cancer. A potential paradigm shift in the management of ovarian cancer was reviewed through comprehensive genomic analyses and a tumor-specific new intraoperative fluorescence imaging technique using folate receptor-α targeted agent, which is expected to improve intraoperative staging and more radical cytoreduction. In addition, updates of bevacizumab and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors, risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy, and risk evaluation of pelvic mass were discussed. Regarding cervical cancer, this review covered new findings on human papillomavirus vaccines and human papillomavirus tests as well as the current status of clinical trials on locally advanced cervical cancer. The promising role of sentinel lymph node biopsy in the management of early stage endometrial cancer was followed by two notable clinical researches on: exemestane, an aromatase inhibitor, for the prevention of breast cancer and eribulin, a non-taxane microtubule dynamics inhibitor for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. Lastly, in premenopausal women with breast cancer, the effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue on the occurrence of chemotherapy-induced early menopause was discussed.