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      The Indo-West Pacific alpheid shrimp Athanas dimorphus Ortmann, 1894: first record for Brazil and the western Atlantic

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          Abstract

          The alpheid shrimp Athanas dimorphus Ortmann, 1894, common and widespread throughout the Indo-West Pacific, is reported for the first time from Brazil, representing the first invasive alpheid species in Brazil, and the first species of the genus Athanas Leach, 1816 introduced to the western Atlantic. The present record is based on several specimens collected at two localities in Ceará, Pedra Rachada beach near the town of Paracuru, and Meireles beach in Fortaleza. Athanas dimorphus is very common at the second site, suggesting that a population of this species is now established in northwestern Brazil. An updated list of marine and freshwater decapods accidentally or voluntarily introduced to Brazil is provided.

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          Most cited references 49

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          Genetic patterns across multiple introductions of the globally invasive crab genus Carcinus.

          The European green crab Carcinus maenas is one of the world's most successful aquatic invaders, having established populations on every continent with temperate shores. Here we describe patterns of genetic diversity across both the native and introduced ranges of C. maenas and its sister species, C. aestuarii, including all known non-native populations. The global data set includes sequences from the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene, as well as multilocus genotype data from nine polymorphic nuclear microsatellite loci. Combined phylogeographic and population genetic analyses clarify the global colonization history of C. maenas, providing evidence of multiple invasions to Atlantic North America and South Africa, secondary invasions to the northeastern Pacific, Tasmania, and Argentina, and a strong likelihood of C. maenas x C. aestuarii hybrids in South Africa and Japan. Successful C. maenas invasions vary broadly in the degree to which they retain genetic diversity, although populations with the least variation typically derive from secondary invasions or from introductions that occurred more than 100 years ago.
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            Morphological phylogeny of alpheid shrimps: parallel preadaptation and the origin of a key morphological innovation, the snapping claw.

            The Alpheidae-possibly the most diverse family of recent decapod crustaceans-offers attractive opportunities to study the evolution of many intriguing phenomena, including key morphological innovations like spectacular snapping claws, highly specialized body forms, facultative and obligate symbioses with many animal groups, and sophisticated behaviors like eusociality. However, studies of these remarkable adaptations remain hampered by insufficient phylogenetic information. We present the first phylogenetic hypothesis of relationships among 36 extant genera of alpheid shrimps, based on a cladistic analysis of 122 morphological characters from 56 species, and we use this hypothesis to explore evolutionary trends in morphology and species diversity. Our results strongly supported a monophyletic Alpheidae that included two hitherto difficult-to-place genera (Yagerocaris and Pterocaris). Of 35+ nodes among genera, all were supported by at least one morphological character (24 were supported by two or more) and 17 received greater than 50% jackknife support. Unfortunately, many basal nodes were only weakly supported. Six genera appeared nonmonophyletic, including the dominant genus Alpheus (paraphyletic due to inclusion of one clade with three minor genera). Evolutionary trends in alpheid claw form shed some revealing light on how key innovations evolve. First, several functionally significant features of the cheliped (claw bearing leg) evolved independently multiple times, including: asymmetry, folding, inverted orientation, sexual dimorphism, adhesive plaques that enhance claw cocking, and tooth-cavity systems on opposing claw fingers, a preadaptation for snapping. Many conspicuous features of alpheid claw form therefore appear prone to parallel evolution. Second, although tooth-cavity systems evolved multiple times, a functional snapping claw, which likely facilitated an explosive radiation of over 550 species, evolved only once (in Synalpheus + [Alpheus + satellite genera]). Third, adhesive plaques (claw cocking aids) also evolved multiple times, and within snapping alpheids are associated with the most diverse clade (Alpheus + derivative genera). This pattern of parallel preadaptation-multiple independent evolutionary origins of precursors (preadaptations) to what ultimately became a key innovation (adaptation)-suggests alpheid shrimp claws are predisposed to develop features like tooth-cavity and adhesive plaque systems for functional or developmental reasons. Such functional/developmental predisposition may facilitate the origin of key innovations. Finally, moderate orbital hoods-anterior projections of the carapace partly or completely covering the eyes-occur in many higher Alpheidae and likely evolved before snapping claws. They are unique among decapod crustaceans, and their elaboration in snapping alpheids suggests they may protect the eyes from the stress of explosive snaps. Thus one key innovation (orbital hoods) may have facilitated evolution of a second (snapping claws).
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              The caridean shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda) of the Albatross Philippine Expedition, 1907–1910, part 5: family Alpheidae

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                nau
                Nauplius
                Nauplius
                Sociedade Brasileira de Carcinologia (Cruz das Almas )
                2358-2936
                June 2011
                : 19
                : 1
                : 87-96
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Universidade Federal do Ceará Brazil
                [2 ] Universidade Federal do Ceará Brazil
                Article
                S0104-64972011000100010
                10.1590/S0104-64972011000100010
                Product
                Product Information: website
                Categories
                ZOOLOGY

                Animal science & Zoology

                Decapoda, Caridea, Alpheidae, new record, invasive species

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