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      When cancer encounters COVID-19 in China: what have we suffered, experienced and learned

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          Abstract

          The outbreak of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) occurred in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. As of 21 March 2020, this epidemic has spread to 179 countries with more than 200 000 confirmed cases and 8578 deaths. The outbreak has put enormous pressure on the medical establishment and even led to exhaustion of medical resources in the most affected areas. Other medical work has been significantly affected in the context of COVID-19 epidemic. In order to reduce or avoid cross-infection with COVID-19, many hospitals have taken measures to limit the number of outpatient visits and inpatients. For example, emergency surgery can only be guaranteed, and most other surgeries can be postponed. Patients with cancer are one of the groups most affected by the epidemic because of their systematic immunosuppressive state and requirement of frequent admission to hospital. Consequently, specific adjustments for their treatment need to be made to cope with this situation. Therefore, it is of significance to summarize the relevant experience of China in the prevention and control of COVID-19 infection and treatment of patients with cancer during the epidemic.

          Abstract

          We share the experience of the medical management of cancer patients from China in the situation of exhaustion of medical resources during the epidemic.

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          Most cited references 40

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          Clinical Characteristics of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in China

          Abstract Background Since December 2019, when coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) emerged in Wuhan city and rapidly spread throughout China, data have been needed on the clinical characteristics of the affected patients. Methods We extracted data regarding 1099 patients with laboratory-confirmed Covid-19 from 552 hospitals in 30 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in mainland China through January 29, 2020. The primary composite end point was admission to an intensive care unit (ICU), the use of mechanical ventilation, or death. Results The median age of the patients was 47 years; 41.9% of the patients were female. The primary composite end point occurred in 67 patients (6.1%), including 5.0% who were admitted to the ICU, 2.3% who underwent invasive mechanical ventilation, and 1.4% who died. Only 1.9% of the patients had a history of direct contact with wildlife. Among nonresidents of Wuhan, 72.3% had contact with residents of Wuhan, including 31.3% who had visited the city. The most common symptoms were fever (43.8% on admission and 88.7% during hospitalization) and cough (67.8%). Diarrhea was uncommon (3.8%). The median incubation period was 4 days (interquartile range, 2 to 7). On admission, ground-glass opacity was the most common radiologic finding on chest computed tomography (CT) (56.4%). No radiographic or CT abnormality was found in 157 of 877 patients (17.9%) with nonsevere disease and in 5 of 173 patients (2.9%) with severe disease. Lymphocytopenia was present in 83.2% of the patients on admission. Conclusions During the first 2 months of the current outbreak, Covid-19 spread rapidly throughout China and caused varying degrees of illness. Patients often presented without fever, and many did not have abnormal radiologic findings. (Funded by the National Health Commission of China and others.)
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            A Novel Coronavirus from Patients with Pneumonia in China, 2019

            Summary In December 2019, a cluster of patients with pneumonia of unknown cause was linked to a seafood wholesale market in Wuhan, China. A previously unknown betacoronavirus was discovered through the use of unbiased sequencing in samples from patients with pneumonia. Human airway epithelial cells were used to isolate a novel coronavirus, named 2019-nCoV, which formed a clade within the subgenus sarbecovirus, Orthocoronavirinae subfamily. Different from both MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV, 2019-nCoV is the seventh member of the family of coronaviruses that infect humans. Enhanced surveillance and further investigation are ongoing. (Funded by the National Key Research and Development Program of China and the National Major Project for Control and Prevention of Infectious Disease in China.)
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              Is Open Access

              A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin

              Since the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) 18 years ago, a large number of SARS-related coronaviruses (SARSr-CoVs) have been discovered in their natural reservoir host, bats 1–4 . Previous studies have shown that some bat SARSr-CoVs have the potential to infect humans 5–7 . Here we report the identification and characterization of a new coronavirus (2019-nCoV), which caused an epidemic of acute respiratory syndrome in humans in Wuhan, China. The epidemic, which started on 12 December 2019, had caused 2,794 laboratory-confirmed infections including 80 deaths by 26 January 2020. Full-length genome sequences were obtained from five patients at an early stage of the outbreak. The sequences are almost identical and share 79.6% sequence identity to SARS-CoV. Furthermore, we show that 2019-nCoV is 96% identical at the whole-genome level to a bat coronavirus. Pairwise protein sequence analysis of seven conserved non-structural proteins domains show that this virus belongs to the species of SARSr-CoV. In addition, 2019-nCoV virus isolated from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of a critically ill patient could be neutralized by sera from several patients. Notably, we confirmed that 2019-nCoV uses the same cell entry receptor—angiotensin converting enzyme II (ACE2)—as SARS-CoV.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Jpn J Clin Oncol
                Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol
                jjco
                Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology
                Oxford University Press
                0368-2811
                1465-3621
                16 May 2020
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Internal Medicine, Henan Cancer Hospital Affiliated to Zhengzhou University , Zhengzhou, China
                [2 ] Henan Medical Association , Zhengzhou, China
                Author notes
                For reprints and all correspondence: Qiming Wang, Department of Internal Medicine, Henan Cancer Hospital Affiliated to Zhengzhou University, 127 Dong Ming Road, Zhengzhou, Henan 450008, China. E-mail: qimingwang1006@ 123456126.com ;
                Wei Wang, Henan Medical Association, 45 Wei Wu Road, Zhengzhou, Henan 450008, China. E-mail: weiwang68@ 123456126.com

                Contributed equally.

                Article
                hyaa077
                10.1093/jjco/hyaa077
                7239118
                32415305
                © The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

                This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model ( https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model)

                This article is made available via the PMC Open Access Subset for unrestricted re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for the duration of the COVID-19 pandemic or until permissions are revoked in writing. Upon expiration of these permissions, PMC is granted a perpetual license to make this article available via PMC and Europe PMC, consistent with existing copyright protections.

                Page count
                Pages: 7
                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: Program for Science and Technology Innovation Talents in Universities of Henan Province;
                Award ID: 18HASTIT044
                Funded by: 51282 project Leading Talent of Henan Provincial Health Science and Technology Innovation Talents;
                Award ID: [2016]32
                Funded by: Natural Science Foundation of Henan Province, DOI 10.13039/501100006407;
                Funded by: Zhongyuan 1000 Talents Plan;
                Award ID: 162300410300
                Funded by: National Natural Science Foundation of China, DOI 10.13039/501100001809;
                Award ID: 81272600
                Funded by: Henan Province and Ministry of Health Medical Science and Technology Program;
                Award ID: 201601026
                Categories
                Public Health Report
                Custom metadata
                PAP

                Oncology & Radiotherapy

                diagnosis, treatment, cancer, sars-cov-2, covid-19

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