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      Self-care behavior of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in Bandar Abbas in 2015

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          Abstract

          Background

          Diabetes self-care helps to control the blood sugar which, in turn, results in a better state of health. However, more than 50% of diabetic patients do not have self-care capabilities.

          Objective

          To determine type 2 diabetes self-care capabilities among patients visiting a Bandar Abbas diabetes clinic in 2016.

          Methods

          The present descriptive-analytical research was of a cross-sectional type. The sample was comprised of 120 patients afflicted with type 2 diabetes, who had been selected through the simple randomized sampling method. The data collection instrument was a questionnaire comprised of two sections: demographic information, and a summary of patients’ diabetes self-care activities. A 7-point Likert scale was used for the rating. The final score would be interpreted as any of the three levels: good (acceptable) (75–100), moderate (50–74) and poor (below 50). The data entered SPSS version 18.0 for the required statistical analyses.

          Results

          The mean age of the sample was 51.88±10.12 years. Of the 120 subjects, 86 were female (71.7%) and 34 were male (28.3%). The findings revealed that the self-care capability of 83 subjects (69.2%) was poor; capability of 28 subjects was moderate (23.3%) and the same score of good/acceptable in 9 subjects (7.5%).

          Conclusion

          The results of the present research indicate that a large number of diabetic patients have a poor self-care capability. Due to the key role of such activities in a diabetic patient’s life, it is suggested to include educational programs to increase the level of self-care capabilities among these patients.

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          Most cited references 22

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          The summary of diabetes self-care activities measure: results from 7 studies and a revised scale.

          To review reliability, validity, and normative data from 7 different studies, involving a total of 1,988 people with diabetes, and provide a revised version of the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities (SDSCA) measure. The SDSCA measure is a brief self-report questionnaire of diabetes self-management that includes items assessing the following aspects of the diabetes regimen: general diet, specific diet, exercise, blood-glucose testing, foot care, and smoking. Normative data (means and SD), inter-item and test-retest reliability, correlations between the SDSCA subscales and a range of criterion measures, and sensitivity to change scores are presented for the 7 different studies (5 randomized interventions and 2 observational studies). Participants were typically older patients, having type 2 diabetes for a number of years, with a slight preponderance of women. The average inter-item correlations within scales were high (mean = 0.47), with the exception of specific diet; test-retest correlations were moderate (mean = 0.40). Correlations with other measures of diet and exercise generally supported the validity of the SDSCA subscales (mean = 0.23). There are numerous benefits from standardization of measures across studies. The SDSCA questionnaire is a brief yet reliable and valid self-report measure of diabetes self-management that is useful both for research and practice. The revised version and its scoring are presented, and the inclusion of this measure in studies of diabetes self-management is recommended when appropriate.
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            Self-care behaviors among patients with heart failure.

            One way to prevent frequent hospitalizations and promote positive health outcomes among patients with heart failure (HF) is to ensure that the amount and quality of self-care used is appropriate to the patient's situation. The following are the purposes of this study: (a) examine the frequency of performance of self-care behaviors, (b) describe personal and environmental factors (basic conditioning factors [BCFs]) that affect self-care behaviors, and (c) describe the relationship between the level of knowledge patients have to empower their performance of self-care and the actual performance of self-care behaviors. This descriptive correlational study was guided by Orem's theory of self-care. One hundred ten participants, predominantly African Americans, who were outpatients or inpatients ready for hospital discharge, 18 years or older, and diagnosed with HF that was confirmed by an ejection fraction of 40% or less were conveniently selected from 1 of 2 sites. Data were collected with 2 investigator-developed instruments: the Revised Heart Failure Self-Care Behavior Scale and the Heart Failure Knowledge Test. Descriptive statistics, correlational analyses, and t tests for independent samples were used to analyze the data. Three of the top 5 most frequently performed self-care behaviors were related to taking prescribed medications, and the 5 least frequently performed self-care behaviors were concerned with symptom monitoring or management. There were no significant relationships between the total self-care behavior score and any of the BCFs; however, a number of significant relationships between BCFs and individual self-care behaviors were observed. There was a significant relationship between the mean total knowledge score and the total mean self-care score (r = 0.21, P =.026). Detailed information about the influence of BCFs on the performance of specific HF self-care behaviors can help nurses tailor interventions to the patient's situation.
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              Self-Care Practices among Diabetes Patients in Addis Ababa: A Qualitative Study

              Background Self-care practices that include self-monitoring of blood sugar level, diet management, physical exercise, adherence to medications, and foot care are the cornerstones of diabetes management. However, very little is known about self-care in developing countries where the prevalence of diabetes is increasing. Objective The objective of this study was to describe self-care practices among individuals with type II diabetes in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods A qualitative method was used to gather data from type II diabetes patients. Patients were recruited from the outpatient diabetes clinics of two public hospitals in Addis Ababa. Data were collected using a semi structured interview guide. A thematic analysis approach was used to process the data. Results Overall self-care practices were not adequate. Most patients reported irregular self-monitoring of blood sugar. Dietary and physical exercise recommendations were inadequately practiced by most of the participants. Most patients better adhered to medication prescriptions. Patients generally lack proper information/knowledge regarding the importance of self-care and how it should be implemented. Based on reported behavior we identified three main categories of patients; which are those ‘endeavor to be compliant’, ‘confused’ and ‘negligent’. Conclusion Diabetes patients largely depend on prescribed medications to control their blood sugar level. The importance of proper self-care practices for effective management of diabetes is not adequately emphasized in diabetes care centers and patients lack sufficient knowledge for proper self-care.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Electron Physician
                Electron Physician
                Electronic physician
                Electronic Physician
                Electronic physician
                2008-5842
                November 2017
                25 November 2017
                : 9
                : 11
                : 5863-5867
                Affiliations
                [1 ]M.Sc. Student of Health Education, Health School, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran
                [2 ]Assistant Professor of Health Education, Social Determinants on Health Promotion Research Center, Faculty of Health, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran
                [3 ]Instructor in Statistics, Social Determinants on Health Promotion Research Center, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Assistant Professor Dr. Sedigheh Abedini, Social Determinants on Health Promotion Research Center, Faculty of Health, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran. Tel: +98.7633338788, Email: sabedini45@ 123456yahoo.com
                Article
                epj-09-5863
                10.19082/5863
                5783140
                © 2017 The Authors

                This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.

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