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      Evidence of earlier thyroid dysfunction in newly diagnosed oral lichen planus patients: a hint for endocrinologists


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          The association between oral lichen planus (OLP) and hypothyroidism has been debated with conflicting results: some authors detected a statistically significant association between these two, while others did not confirm it. The aim of this study was to evaluate the thyroid status in patients with newly diagnosed OLP to test the null hypothesis that thyroid disease is not associated with an increased incidence of oral lesions, with a prospective case-control approach. A total of 549 patients have been evaluated, of whom 355 were female. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained. Patients suffering from thyroid diseases were associated with an almost 3-fold increased odds of having OLP (OR 2.85, 95% CI: 1.65–4.94), after adjusting this analysis for age, gender, body mass index, smoking status, diabetes, hypertension and hepatitis C infection. It would be appropriate to further investigate the possible concomitance of OLP among patients with thyroid disorder; endocrinologists should be aware of this association, especially because OLP is considered a potentially malignant oral disorder.

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          Most cited references12

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          Serum TSH and total T4 in the United States population and their association with participant characteristics: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2002).

          Describe thyrotropin (TSH) and thyroxine (T4) levels in the U.S. population and their association with selected participant characteristics. Secondary analysis of data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) collected from 4392 participants, reflecting 222 million individuals, during 1999-2002. Hypothyroidism prevalence (TSH > 4.5 mIU/L) in the general population was 3.7%, and hyperthyroidism prevalence (TSH < 0.1 mIU/L) was 0.5%. Among women of reproductive age (12-49 years), hypothyroidism prevalence was 3.1%. Individuals aged 80 years and older had five times greater odds for hypothyroidism compared to 12- to 49-year-olds (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 5.0, p = 0.0002). ORs were adjusted for sex, race, annual income, pregnancy status, and usage of thyroid-related medications (levothyroxine/thyroid, estrogen, androgen, lithium, and amiodarone). Compared to non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks had a lower risk for hypothyroidism (OR = 0.46, p = 0.04) and a higher risk for hyperthyroidism (OR = 3.18, p = 0.0005), while Mexican Americans had the same risk as non-Hispanic whites for hypothyroidism, but a higher risk for hyperthyroidism (OR = 1.98, p = 0.04). Among those taking levothyroxine or desiccated thyroid, the adjusted risk for either hypothyroidism (OR = 4.0, p = 0.0001) or hyperthyroidism (OR = 11.4, p = 4 x 10(-9)) was elevated. Associations with known factors such as age, race, and sex were confirmed using this data set. Understanding the prevalence of abnormal thyroid tests among reproductive-aged women informs decisions about screening in this population. The finding that individuals on thyroid hormone replacement medication often remain hypothyroid or become hyperthyroid underscores the importance of monitoring.
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            Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Reference Range and Prevalence of Thyroid Dysfunction in the Korean Population: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013 to 2015

            Background No nationwide epidemiological study evaluating the prevalence of subclinical and overt forms of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism has yet been conducted in Korea. This study aimed to evaluate the reference range of serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and the national prevalence of thyroid dysfunctions in Korea. Methods Nation-wide cross-sectional data were analyzed from a representative sample of the civilian, non-institutionalized Korean population (n=6,564) who underwent blood testing for thyroid function and anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) as part of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey VI (2013 to 2015). Results The reference interval of serum TSH in the Korean reference population was 0.62 to 6.68 mIU/L. Based on this reference interval, the prevalence of overt and subclinical hypothyroidism was 0.73% (males 0.40%, females 1.10%) and 3.10% (males 2.26%, females 4.04%), respectively. The prevalence of hypothyroidism increased with age until the age group between 50 to 59 years. Positive TPOAb were found in 7.30% of subjects (males 4.33%, females 10.62%). The prevalence of overt and subclinical hypothyroidism TPOAb-positive subjects was 5.16% and 10.88%, respectively. The prevalence of overt and subclinical hyperthyroidism was 0.54% (males 0.30%, females 0.81%) and 2.98% (males 2.43%, females, 3.59%), respectively. Conclusion The Serum TSH reference levels in the Korean population were higher than the corresponding levels in Western countries. Differences were found in the prevalence of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism according to age, sex, and TPOAb positivity. This study provides important baseline information for understanding patterns of thyroid dysfunction and diseases in Korea.
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              Course of oral lichen planus: a retrospective study of 808 northern Italian patients.

              To undertake a retrospective inspection of the general features, clinical presentation and outcome of 808 Italian patients with oral lichen planus (OLP), followed up from 6 months to 17 years. The mean age was 61 years for women (n = 493) and 58 years for men (n = 315). More than 20% of the total cases had liver abnormalities (n = 164) of which 83.5% infected with hepatitis C virus (n = 137). The reticular and plaque form were the predominant type, affecting almost 60% of patients. 12.3% of patients had also extraoral manifestation, taking into account the skin (n = 63) and genital (n = 24). Symptoms were present in 40% of the total patients. Only less than 2.47% of patients underwent remission, whereas 78% still had oral lesions at the end of the follow-up period. Treatment was directed towards almost 42% of the patients, mainly using topical corticosteroids. Oral squamous cell carcinoma developed in 15 patients, commonly arising on the lateral border of the tongue. This is one of the largest groups of OLP patients with such long a follow-up ever reported. We confirm the chronic nature of this disorder, rarely remissive and the treatment intend for alleviating symptoms. OLP is established to be a disease with small frequency of malignant transformation.

                Author and article information

                Endocr Connect
                Endocr Connect
                Endocrine Connections
                Bioscientifica Ltd (Bristol )
                November 2017
                29 September 2017
                : 6
                : 8
                : 726-730
                [1 ]Department of Surgical Sciences CIR-Dental School, University of Turin, Turin, Italy
                [2 ]Private Practice Cuneo, Italy
                [3 ]Unit of Epidemiology Regional Health Service ASL TO3, Grugliasco, Turin, Italy
                Author notes
                Correspondence should be addressed to P G Arduino; Email: paologiacomo.arduino@ 123456unito.it
                © 2017 The authors

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

                : 22 September 2017
                : 29 September 2017

                olp,thyroid disease,risk factor
                olp, thyroid disease, risk factor


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