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      Salivary Levels of IL-6 and IL-17 Could Be an Indicator of Disease Severity in Patients with Calculus Associated Chronic Periodontitis

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          Abstract

          Background/Purpose. Chronic periodontitis is an inflammatory disease of gums that causes loss of supporting structures of teeth, that is, gingiva, periodontal ligament, cementum, and alveolar bone. Levels of various cytokines in the serum, gingival tissues, and gingival crevicular fluid in patients with chronic periodontitis have been studied, but limited data are available on the level of cytokines in saliva. Therefore, a study was designed to determine levels of salivary IL-6 and IL-17 in patients with calculus associated chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods. It was a comparative, cross-sectional study that is comprised of 41 healthy controls and 41 calculus associated chronic periodontitis patients (CP patients). According to the degree of attachment loss, CP patients were subcategorized as mild (CAL 1-2 mm), moderate (CAL 3-4 mm), and severe (CAL > 5 mm) forms of periodontitis. Salivary levels of IL-6 and IL-17 were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. Data was analyzed using SPSS 20.0. Results. Between healthy controls and CP patients (moderate and severe disease), a statistically significant difference was observed in the concentrations of IL-6 and IL-17. In CP patients, the highest mean ± SD of salivary IL-6 and IL-17 was observed in severe CP, followed by moderate and mild CP. Regarding level of IL-6, a statistically significant difference was observed between mild and severe disease and between moderate and severe subcategories of CP patients. Similarly, statistically significant difference was observed in the level of IL-17 between mild and moderate, mild and severe disease, and moderate and severe disease. Conclusion. The levels of salivary IL-6 and IL-17 were increased significantly in calculus associated CP patients as compared to healthy controls and these levels increased with the progression of CP. Clinical Significance. Salivary levels of IL-6 and IL-17 may help in the subcategorization of CP.

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          Most cited references 30

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          Inflammatory and immune pathways in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease.

          The pathogenesis of periodontitis involves a complex immune/inflammatory cascade that is initiated by the bacteria of the oral biofilm that forms naturally on the teeth. The susceptibility to periodontitis appears to be determined by the host response; specifically, the magnitude of the inflammatory response and the differential activation of immune pathways. The purpose of this review was to delineate our current knowledge of the host response in periodontitis. The role of innate immunity, the failure of acute inflammation to resolve (thus becoming chronic), the cytokine pathways that regulate the activation of acquired immunity and the cells and products of the immune system are considered. New information relating to regulation of both inflammation and the immune response will be reviewed in the context of susceptibility to, and perhaps control of, periodontitis. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
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            Destructive and protective roles of cytokines in periodontitis: a re-appraisal from host defense and tissue destruction viewpoints.

             G Garlet (2010)
            Periodontal diseases (PD) are chronic infectious inflammatory diseases characterized by the destruction of tooth-supporting structures, being the presence of periodontopathogens required, but not sufficient, for disease development. As a general rule, host inflammatory mediators have been associated with tissue destruction, while anti-inflammatory mediators counteract and attenuate disease progression. With the discovery of several T-cell subsets bearing distinct immunoregulatory properties, this pro- vs. anti-inflammatory scenario became more complex, and a series of studies has hypothesized protective or destructive roles for Th1, Th2, Th17, and Treg subpopulations of polarized lymphocytes. Interestingly, the "protective vs. destructive" archetype is usually considered in a framework related to tissue destruction and disease progression. However, it is important to remember that periodontal diseases are infectious inflammatory conditions, and recent studies have demonstrated that cytokines (TNF-α and IFN-γ) considered harmful in the context of tissue destruction play important roles in the control of periodontal infection. Therefore, in this review, the state-of-the-art knowledge concerning the protective and destructive roles of host inflammatory immune response will be critically evaluated and discussed from the tissue destruction and control-of-infection viewpoints.
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              Mechanisms of Bone Resorption in Periodontitis

              Alveolar bone loss is a hallmark of periodontitis progression and its prevention is a key clinical challenge in periodontal disease treatment. Bone destruction is mediated by the host immune and inflammatory response to the microbial challenge. However, the mechanisms by which the local immune response against periodontopathic bacteria disturbs the homeostatic balance of bone formation and resorption in favour of bone loss remain to be established. The osteoclast, the principal bone resorptive cell, differentiates from monocyte/macrophage precursors under the regulation of the critical cytokines macrophage colony-stimulating factor, RANK ligand, and osteoprotegerin. TNF-α, IL-1, and PGE2 also promote osteoclast activity, particularly in states of inflammatory osteolysis such as those found in periodontitis. The pathogenic processes of destructive inflammatory periodontal diseases are instigated by subgingival plaque microflora and factors such as lipopolysaccharides derived from specific pathogens. These are propagated by host inflammatory and immune cell influences, and the activation of T and B cells initiates the adaptive immune response via regulation of the Th1-Th2-Th17 regulatory axis. In summary, Th1-type T lymphocytes, B cell macrophages, and neutrophils promote bone loss through upregulated production of proinflammatory mediators and activation of the RANK-L expression pathways.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Biomed Res Int
                Biomed Res Int
                BMRI
                BioMed Research International
                Hindawi
                2314-6133
                2314-6141
                2018
                18 February 2018
                : 2018
                Affiliations
                1Nishtar Dental College, Multan, Pakistan
                2Department of Immunology, University of Health Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan
                3Department of Oral Pathology, BAMDC, Multan, Pakistan
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Paul Ashwood

                Article
                10.1155/2018/8531961
                5835283
                Copyright © 2018 Husniah Batool et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Research Article

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