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      Phenology and phylogeny of Hyalomma spp. ticks infesting one-humped camels ( Camelus dromedarius) in the Tunisian Saharan bioclimatic zone Translated title: Phénologie et phylogénie des tiques Hyalomma spp. infestant les dromadaires ( Camelus dromedarius) dans la zone bioclimatique saharienne tunisienne

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          Abstract

          In this study, we report the results of a survey of Hyalomma ticks infesting one-humped camels in southern Tunisia. Examinations were conducted every second or third month on 406 camels in Tataouine district from April 2018 to October 2019. A total of 1902 ticks belonging to the genus Hyalomma were collected. The ticks were identified as adult H. impeltatum (41.1%; n = 782), H. dromedarii (32.9%; n = 626), H. excavatum (25.9%; n = 493), and H. marginatum for a single specimen. Although the camels were infested by ticks throughout the year, the highest overall infestation prevalence was observed in April 2018 ( p < 0.01). The overall infestation intensity varied between 2.7 and 7.4 ticks/animal. There were no statistically significant differences in tick infestation prevalence based on age categories of the camels, and the overall infestation prevalence was between 82.7% and 97.4%. Female camels were significantly more infested with ticks (88.3%) than males (65.5%) ( p < 0.01). The infestation prevalence of camels varied significantly according to the region where sampling took place ( p < 0.01), but no correlations were found with abiotic factors. The preferred attachment sites for adult Hyalomma ticks were the sternum (38.3%; n = 729/1902), around the anus (36.2%; n = 689/1902), udder (18.4%; n = 350/1902), and inner thigh (6.9%; n = 132/1902). Morphological classification of ticks was corroborated by sequencing the cytochrome c oxidase I ( Cox1) and 16S rDNA genes, and these sequences were also used to infer phylogenetic relationships. A single H. dromedarii seemed to be a natural hybrid with H. rufipes. More attention should be devoted by the veterinary services to the infestation of camels by ticks.

          Translated abstract

          Dans cette étude, les résultats d’une enquête concernant les tiques Hyalomma infestant les dromadaires dans le sud de la Tunisie sont présentés. Des examens ont été menés tous les deux ou trois mois sur 406 dromadaires dans le district de Tataouine entre avril 2018 et octobre 2019. Au total, 1902 tiques appartenant au genre Hyalomma ont été collectées. Les tiques adultes ont été identifiées comme H. impeltatum (41,1 % ; n = 782), H. dromedarii (32,9 % ; n = 626), H. excavatum (25,9 % ; n = 493) et un seul spécimen de H. marginatum. Bien que les dromadaires aient été infestés par les tiques tout au long de l’année, la prévalence globale d’infestation la plus élevée a été observée en avril 2018 ( p < 0,01). L’intensité globale d’infestation variait entre 2,7 et 7,4 tiques/animal. Il n’y avait pas de différence statistiquement significative de l’infestation par les tiques en fonction des catégories d’âge des dromadaires, et la prévalence globale d’infestation se situait entre 82,7 et 97,4 %. Les dromadaires femelles étaient significativement plus infestés par les tiques (88,3 %) que les mâles (65,5 %) ( p < 0,01). La prévalence d’infestation variait significativement en fonction des régions ( p < 0.01) mais il n’y avait pas de corrélation avec les facteurs abiotiques. Les sites de fixation préférés des tiques Hyalomma adultes étaient le sternum (38,3 % ; n = 729/1902), autour de l’anus (36,2 % ; n = 689/1902), la mamelle (18,4 % ; n = 350/1902) et la face interne de la cuisse (6,9 % ; n = 132/1902). La classification morphologique a été corroborée par le séquençage des gènes de l’ADNr du cytochrome c oxydase I ( Cox1) et du 16S, et ces séquences ont également été utilisées pour déduire les relations phylogénétiques. Un seul spécimen de H. dromedarii semblait être un hybride naturel avec H. rufipes. Une plus grande attention doit être accordée par les services vétérinaires quant à l’infestation des dromadaires par les tiques.

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          Most cited references 60

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          Geneious Basic: An integrated and extendable desktop software platform for the organization and analysis of sequence data

          Summary: The two main functions of bioinformatics are the organization and analysis of biological data using computational resources. Geneious Basic has been designed to be an easy-to-use and flexible desktop software application framework for the organization and analysis of biological data, with a focus on molecular sequences and related data types. It integrates numerous industry-standard discovery analysis tools, with interactive visualizations to generate publication-ready images. One key contribution to researchers in the life sciences is the Geneious public application programming interface (API) that affords the ability to leverage the existing framework of the Geneious Basic software platform for virtually unlimited extension and customization. The result is an increase in the speed and quality of development of computation tools for the life sciences, due to the functionality and graphical user interface available to the developer through the public API. Geneious Basic represents an ideal platform for the bioinformatics community to leverage existing components and to integrate their own specific requirements for the discovery, analysis and visualization of biological data. Availability and implementation: Binaries and public API freely available for download at http://www.geneious.com/basic, implemented in Java and supported on Linux, Apple OSX and MS Windows. The software is also available from the Bio-Linux package repository at http://nebc.nerc.ac.uk/news/geneiousonbl. Contact: peter@biomatters.com
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            A simple, fast, and accurate algorithm to estimate large phylogenies by maximum likelihood.

            The increase in the number of large data sets and the complexity of current probabilistic sequence evolution models necessitates fast and reliable phylogeny reconstruction methods. We describe a new approach, based on the maximum- likelihood principle, which clearly satisfies these requirements. The core of this method is a simple hill-climbing algorithm that adjusts tree topology and branch lengths simultaneously. This algorithm starts from an initial tree built by a fast distance-based method and modifies this tree to improve its likelihood at each iteration. Due to this simultaneous adjustment of the topology and branch lengths, only a few iterations are sufficient to reach an optimum. We used extensive and realistic computer simulations to show that the topological accuracy of this new method is at least as high as that of the existing maximum-likelihood programs and much higher than the performance of distance-based and parsimony approaches. The reduction of computing time is dramatic in comparison with other maximum-likelihood packages, while the likelihood maximization ability tends to be higher. For example, only 12 min were required on a standard personal computer to analyze a data set consisting of 500 rbcL sequences with 1,428 base pairs from plant plastids, thus reaching a speed of the same order as some popular distance-based and parsimony algorithms. This new method is implemented in the PHYML program, which is freely available on our web page: http://www.lirmm.fr/w3ifa/MAAS/.
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              jModelTest: phylogenetic model averaging.

              jModelTest is a new program for the statistical selection of models of nucleotide substitution based on "Phyml" (Guindon and Gascuel 2003. A simple, fast, and accurate algorithm to estimate large phylogenies by maximum likelihood. Syst Biol. 52:696-704.). It implements 5 different selection strategies, including "hierarchical and dynamical likelihood ratio tests," the "Akaike information criterion," the "Bayesian information criterion," and a "decision-theoretic performance-based" approach. This program also calculates the relative importance and model-averaged estimates of substitution parameters, including a model-averaged estimate of the phylogeny. jModelTest is written in Java and runs under Mac OSX, Windows, and Unix systems with a Java Runtime Environment installed. The program, including documentation, can be freely downloaded from the software section at http://darwin.uvigo.es.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Parasite
                Parasite
                parasite
                Parasite
                EDP Sciences
                1252-607X
                1776-1042
                2021
                18 May 2021
                : 28
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2021/01 )
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Laboratoire de Parasitologie, Univ. Manouba, Institution de la Recherche et de l’Enseignement Supérieur Agricoles, École Nationale de Médecine Vétérinaire de Sidi Thabet 2020 Sidi Thabet Tunisia
                [2 ] Commissariat Régional de Développement Agricole (CRDA) 3200 Tataouine Tunisia
                [3 ] Institute for Parasitology and Tropical Veterinary Medicine, Freie Universität Berlin Robert-von-Ostertag-Str. 7–13 14163 Berlin Germany
                [4 ] International Centre for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA) P.O. Box 5689 Addis Ababa Ethiopia
                [5 ] International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA) P.O. Box 950764 Amman 11195 Jordan
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: elati.khawla@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                parasite200093 10.1051/parasite/2021038
                10.1051/parasite/2021038
                8132600
                34009121
                © K. Elati et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2021

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 10, Tables: 0, Equations: 3, References: 56, Pages: 13
                Categories
                Research Article

                tunisia, phylogeny, phenology, hyalomma, camels, ticks

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