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      Effect of the F129L Mutation in Alternaria solani on Fungicides Affecting Mitochondrial Respiration

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      Plant Disease

      Scientific Societies

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          Occurrence and molecular characterization of strobilurin resistance in cucumber powdery mildew and downy mildew.

          ABSTRACT Between 1998 and 1999, control failure of powdery mildew (Podosphaera fusca) and downy mildew (Pseudoperonospora cubensis) by the strobilurin fungicides azoxystrobin and kresoxim-methyl was observed in cucumber-growing areas of Japan. Results from inoculation tests carried out on intact cucumber plants and leaf disks clearly showed the distribution of pathogen isolates highly resistant to azoxystrobin and kresoximmethyl. Fragments of the fungicide-targeted mitochondrial cytochrome b gene were polymerase chain reaction amplified from total pathogen DNA and their sequences analyzed to elucidate the molecular mechanism of resistance. A single point mutation (GGT to GCT) in the cytochrome b gene, resulting in substitution of glycine by alanine at position 143, was found in resistant isolates of downy mildew. This substitution in cytochrome b seemed to result in high resistance to strobilurins in this pathogen. The same mutation was found in some but not all resistant isolates of powdery mildew. This study suggests that a mutation at position 143 in the target-encoding gene, resulting in an amino acid substitution, was probably a major cause of the rapid development of high strobilurin resistance in these two pathogens.
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            Point Mutation in Cytochrome b Gene Conferring Resistance to Strobilurin Fungicides in Erysiphe graminis f. sp. tritici Field Isolates

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              Field Resistance to Strobilurin (Q(o)I) Fungicides in Pyricularia grisea Caused by Mutations in the Mitochondrial Cytochrome b Gene.

              ABSTRACT Gray leaf spot caused by Pyricularia grisea is a highly destructive disease of perennial ryegrass turf. Control of gray leaf spot is dependent on the use of preventative fungicide treatments. Strobilurin-based (Q(o)I) fungicides, which inhibit the cytochrome bc(1) respiratory complex, have proven to be very effective against gray leaf spot. However, in August 2000, disease was diagnosed in Q(o)I-treated perennial ryegrass turf on golf courses in Lexington, KY, Champaign, IL, and Bloomington, IL. To determine if resistance was due to a mutation in the fungicide target, the cytochrome b gene (CYTB) was amplified from baseline and resistant isolates. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed an intronless coding region of 1,179 bp. Isolates that were resistant to Q(o)I fungicides possessed one of two different mutant alleles, each of which carried a single point mutation. The first mutant allele had a guanine-to-cytosine transition at nucleotide position +428, resulting in a replacement of glycine 143 by alanine (G143A). Mutant allele two exhibited a cytosine-to-adenine transversion at position +387, causing a phenylalanine-to-leucine change (F129L). Cleavable amplified polymorphic sequence analysis revealed that neither mutation was present in a collection of baseline isolates collected before Q(o)I fungicide use and indicated that suspected Q(o)I- resistant isolates found in 2001 in Indiana and Maryland possessed the F129L mutation. The Pyricularia grisea isolates possessing the G143A substitution were significantly more resistant to azoxystrobin and trifloxystrobin, in vitro, than those having F129L. DNA fingerprinting of resistant isolates revealed that the mutations occurred in just five genetic backgrounds, suggesting that field resistance to the Q(o)I fungicides in Pyricularia grisea is due to a small number of ancestral mutations.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Plant Disease
                Plant Disease
                Scientific Societies
                0191-2917
                March 2005
                March 2005
                : 89
                : 3
                : 269-278
                Article
                10.1094/PD-89-0269
                00421188-74c3-4a05-ae52-8f53b793cb66
                © 2005
                Product

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