Activating mutations in Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) occur in ∼30% of adult cases of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Selective second- and third-generation FLT3 inhibitors have shown significant clinical activity in patients with relapsed FLT3-mutant AML. However, clearance of FLT3-mutant clones does not consistently occur, and disease will progress in most patients after an initial response. This scenario challenges the model of FLT3-mutant AML being oncogene addicted, and it suggests that redundant signaling pathways regulate AML cell survival after FLT3 inhibition. We show that primary FLT3-mutant AML cells escape apoptosis induced by FLT3 inhibition in vitro in the presence of cytokines produced normally in the bone marrow, particularly granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin-3 (IL-3). Despite reactivating canonical FLT3-signaling pathways, GM-CSF and IL-3 maintain cell survival without rescuing proliferation. Cytokine-mediated resistance through GM-CSF and IL-3 is dependent on JAK kinase, STAT5, and proviral integration site of Moloney murine leukemia virus (PIM) but not MAPK or mammalian target of rapamycin signaling. Cotreatment with FLT3 inhibitors and inhibitors of JAK or PIM kinases blocks GM-CSF and IL-3 rescue of cell survival in vitro and in vivo. Altogether, these data provide a strong rationale for combination therapy with FLT3 inhibitors to potentially improve clinical responses in AML.